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Physics - Definition, Fundamentals, Types, Importance, Chapters, Topics

Physics - Definition, Fundamentals, Types, Importance, Chapters, Topics

Edited By Team Careers360 | Updated on Feb 02, 2024 11:56 AM IST

What is Physics?

Physics is the study of how matter and energy interact and how they communicate over time and space. Functional Physics Functions. What we are saying about this is that things are constantly changing in the world of physics with all that has been discovered. Physics helps us learn movement, behavior, and space. It is a natural science that deals with all related aspects of energy and energy. As ideas progress, and action is taken, not only the answer but every question changes. Because of this, many people describe physics as being more than just what it is and what it will be.

Physics Definition?

Physics Definition and Physics Meaning: Physics is the natural science that deals with matter and the power and interaction of matter with each other. It also deals with all the body processes and conditions of a particular system. Basically, Physics is natural knowledge. If we want to understand this issue at different levels, let's say both macroscopic and microscopic levels, Basic physics terms becomes a gold mine for learning the nature of motion, working at low and high temperatures, kinetic energy molecules, and much more.

Fundamentals of physics is a science textbook based on the calculus of David Halliday, Robert Resnick halliday, Jearl Walker.. It is widely used in colleges as part of undergraduate physics courses, and has been widely known to science and engineering students for decades as the "gold standard" of new physics literature.

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Fundamentals of physics

  1. Rules of Physics

  2. Physics Formulas

  3. Physical Elements

  4. Physics Constants

  5. Prices for Physics Constants

  6. Relationships Between Physical Concepts

  7. Differences Between Physical Concepts

  8. Types and Classification in Physics

  9. Classification of Physics concepts

  10. Applications for various Physical concepts

  11. Applications for Physics Concepts

  12. Physics SI Units

Types of Physics

Physics can be classified into various types; here are all types of Physics:


Classical Physics






Acoustics, Sound and Wave Motion






Modern physics


Atomic Physics


Nuclear physics/Biophysics


Quantum physics


Theory of Relativity




Mesoscopic Physics

Importance of Physics:

Physics science is considered a primitive subject as well as an academic discipline to have been discovered. It encompasses the study of matter, its motion song with behavior along with energy and force. The term conceptual is derived from the Greek word Phusika, which means natural thing or nature. In this several processes and views of nature are studied. Physics very often defines a wide range of principles and methodologies studied by other areas of the sciences.

Physics Facts:

  1. Light from the Earth takes just 1.255 sec to reach the Moon.

  2. The 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics was won by Albert Einstein for his work in the field of theoretical physics.

  3. Energy from food is measured in joules.

  4. Polar bears are usually nearly undetectable by infrared cameras.

  5. When travelling at 80 kilometres per hour, cars use around half of their fuel just to overcome wind resistance.

  6. By setting proper constraints, classical physics are often recovered from current physics.

  7. Physics scientists are trying to mix scientific theory and therefore the theory of relativity by developing a more broad theory, dubbed the "theory of everything."

List of Physics Chapters:

  1. Physics and Measurement: The process of measurement is fundamentally an examination process. To measure an actual amount, we need to discover how frequently a standard measure of that actual amount is available in the amount being measured. The number in this way is known as the size, and the standard picked is known as the unit of the actual amount. Prior, three unique units of systems were utilized in various nations. These were CGS, FPS and MKS systems. Presently a-days universal SI system of units is followed. In the SI unit system, seven quantities are taken as the base quantities.

  1. Kinematics: The part of physics that characterizes movement concerning reality, overlooking the reason for that movement, is known as kinematics. Kinematics conditions are a bunch of conditions that can infer an obscure part of a body's movement if different angles are given. Basically, kinematic conditions can determine at least one of these factors if the others are given. These conditions characterize movement at either a consistent speed or at a steady speed increase. Since kinematic conditions are just relevant at a consistent speed increase or a steady speed, we can't utilize them if both of the two are evolving.

  1. Laws of Motion: The laws of the movement were presented by S. Isaac Newton; henceforth they are additionally called Newton's laws of motion. Newton's first law of movement says that a moving body will proceed to move and a body very still will consistently stay very still as long as they are not influenced by any measure of outer force. Newton's second law of motion says that the rate of change of momentum is consistently equivalent to the applied force on a body. Newton's third law of movement says that for each activity force following up on a body in provided guidance there exists a response force following up on a similar body with a similar measure of force, yet inverse in the heading.

  1. Work, Energy and Power: The term work in regular daily existence is utilized to show that at whatever point action is done, we just say that the body has accomplished some work. At the point when a body moves from its underlying situation to some distance, we essentially depict this action of a body as work done by the body. The energy of a body is characterized by its ability or capacity to do work.

  1. Rotational Motion: All the particle of an unbending body perform rotational movement just as the focuses of these circles are consistent on a distinct straight line called the hub of the pivot; then, at that point, the movement of the inflexible body is known as the rotational movement. The elements for rotational movement are totally comparable to direct or translational elements.

  1. Gravitation: Earth draws everything towards it through a concealed force of attraction. This force of attraction is called gravitation or gravitational draw. The terms gravitation and gravity are often utilized reciprocally for the attraction between everything with energy or mass. Every one of the items in the universe draws in one another with a specific measure of force; in the greater part of the cases, the force is too frail to be in any way seen because of the extremely huge distance of the partition. Additionally, gravity's reach is boundless, yet the impact becomes more vulnerable as articles move away.

  1. Properties of Solids and Liquids: Solid: Relatively inflexible, unequivocal volume and shape. In a strong, the atoms are firmly attached to the point that they vibrate and set up, yet don't move around. Fluids: Definite volume, however, ready to change shape by streaming. In a fluid, the particles and atoms are approximately reinforced.

  1. Thermodynamics: Thermodynamics is related to the thoughts of hotness and temperature, just as the trading of hotness and different types of energy. The four standards of thermodynamics administer the conduct of these quantities, which give a quantitative depiction utilizing quantifiable perceptible actual qualities additionally portrayed by measurable classical mechanics with respect to tiny components.. The four standards of thermodynamics, which give a proverbial premise, are utilized to portray any thermodynamic system. The main law expresses that energy can be moved across actual systems as hotness or work. The subsequent law sets up the presence of an amount known as entropy.

  1. Kinetic Theory of Gases: The kinetic theory was created in the nineteenth century by Maxwell, Boltzmann, and others. Kinetic theory clarifies the conduct of gases dependent on the possibility that the gas comprises quickly moving atoms. The kinetic theory of gases clarifies the three naturally visible properties of gas with respect to the infinitesimal idea of the particles and atoms making up the gas. Generally, the actual properties of solids and fluids can be portrayed by their size, shape, mass, and so on. Be that as it may, when we talk about gases, they have no unequivocal shape, size, while mass and volume are not straightforwardly quantifiable.

  1. Oscillation and waves: A wave is an associated assortment of oscillations. In strong waves, each air atom sways to and fro the longitudinal way, the heading where sound is voyaging. The particles don't have any net movement toward sound engendering. At the point when an article rehashes its movement after each decent time, the movement of the item is called oscillatory movement.

  1. Electrostatics: The study of electric charges under rest is perceived as electrostatics. In physics, electrostatics are related to the properties of fixed electric charges. Also, as this wonder emerges from the forces applied by electric charges on each other, it's characterized by Coulomb's Law. Thus, to know the idea of electrostatics, there's a memorable necessity of electrical charge and Coulomb's Law.

  1. Current Electricity: Current is the pace of a flow of electrical charge or the amount of charge moving through a particular region in unit time. It is an improvement related to the progression of charge. A cell creates a potential differentiation across its terminals. It's measured in volts (V). Resistance could likewise be a property that opposes the progression of electrons during a conductor. It controls the size of this. The SI unit of resistance is Ohm.

  2. Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism and Electromagnetism: This section of physics discuss the properties of moving charges and how force is produced by a conductor in the presence of the steady magnetic field. Also, the concept of alternating current and the functioning of generators and transformers are discussed here.

  3. Electromagnetic Waves: Electromagnetic waves are waves that create vibrations between an electrical field and a magnetic field . They're thus called 'electromagnetic' waves. Faraday found electromagnetic enlistment in 1831, and James Clerk Maxwell numerically portrayed it as Faraday's law of acceptance. Electromagnetic enlistment might be a current created by the age of voltage inside the presence of a changing magnetic field . A changing magnetic motion will initiate a changing field and thus the two are connected. These changing fields structure electromagnetic waves.

NCERT Physics Notes:

NCERT Physics Exemplar solutions:

Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

1. What are the two branches of Physics?

Physics is a branch of science that deals with the interaction of matter with energy. There are two Main Branches of Physics, namely: Classical Physics and Modern physics. The four sub-branches of Physics are:

  1. Mechanics

  2. Optics

  3. Electromagnetism

  4. Thermodynamics

2. What is Physics?

Physics is a visual study of the basic principles that govern the living world around us. We begin our view by moving first and then learning about energy, the nature of energy, momentum, energy, and many other concepts in various physical conditions. There are a lot of ideas that are constantly being developed, regarding a topic like Physics, the sky's the limit.

3. What is the name of the founder of quantum physics?

Niels Bohr and Max Planck, two of the founders of quantum theory. They each received the Nobel Prize in Physics for their work on quanta.

4. What is a Vector extension?

We define vector insertion as adding two or more vectors. A parallelogram rule defines the rule of vector addition of two or more vectors.

5. What are the basics of physics?

Physics is the science of nature that involves the study of objects and their movements in space and time, as well as related concepts such as energy and energy. These natural laws are laws that all natural processes seem to follow.

6. What is Physics and examples?

The best example of physics is usually the study of quantum mechanics physics. An example of physics is electrocution. The behaviour of a given body system, especially as understood from a physical point of view.

7. What makes classical physics different from current physics?

The behaviour of matter and energy on a normal scale of observation is the focus of classical physics. But most current physics is concerned with the behaviour of extreme conditions, or on a very big or very tiny scale, affecting matter and energy.

8. What are modern physics' two pillars

One of the major problems with twentieth-century physics is that so much of modern physics is built on two foundations that emerged in the early twentieth century," he explains. "One is relativity, and the other is quantum mechanics," says the author.

Get answers from students and experts

 5 g of Na2SO4 was dissolved in x g of H2O. The change in freezing point was found to be 3.820C.  If Na2SO4 is 81.5% ionised, the value of x (Kf for water=1.860C kg mol−1) is approximately : (molar mass of S=32 g mol−1 and that of Na=23 g mol−1)
Option: 1  15 g
Option: 2  25 g
Option: 3  45 g
Option: 4  65 g  

 50 mL of 0.2 M ammonia solution is treated with 25 mL of 0.2 M HCl.  If pKb of ammonia solution is 4.75, the pH of the mixture will be :
Option: 1 3.75
Option: 2 4.75
Option: 3 8.25
Option: 4 9.25


What is A?

Option: 1


Option: 2


Option: 3


Option: 4


\mathrm{NaNO_{3}} when heated gives a white solid A and two gases B and C. B and C are two important atmospheric gases. What is A, B and C ?

Option: 1

\mathrm{A}: \mathrm{NaNO}_2 \mathrm{~B}: \mathrm{O}_2 \mathrm{C}: \mathrm{N}_2

Option: 2

A: \mathrm{Na}_2 \mathrm{OB}: \mathrm{O}_2 \mathrm{C}: \mathrm{N}_2

Option: 3

A: \mathrm{NaNO}_2 \mathrm{~B}: \mathrm{O}_2 \mathrm{C}: \mathrm{Cl}_2

Option: 4

\mathrm{A}: \mathrm{Na}_2 \mathrm{OB}: \mathrm{O}_2 \mathrm{C}: \mathrm{Cl}_2

C_1+2 C_2+3 C_3+\ldots .n C_n=

Option: 1


Option: 2

\text { n. } 2^n

Option: 3

\text { n. } 2^{n-1}

Option: 4

n \cdot 2^{n+1}


A capacitor is made of two square plates each of side 'a' making a very small angle \alpha between them, as shown in the figure. The capacitance will be close to : 
Option: 1 \frac{\epsilon _{0}a^{2}}{d}\left ( 1 - \frac{\alpha a }{4 d } \right )

Option: 2 \frac{\epsilon _{0}a^{2}}{d}\left ( 1 + \frac{\alpha a }{4 d } \right )

Option: 3 \frac{\epsilon _{0}a^{2}}{d}\left ( 1 - \frac{\alpha a }{2 d } \right )

Option: 4 \frac{\epsilon _{0}a^{2}}{d}\left ( 1 - \frac{3 \alpha a }{2 d } \right )

 Among the following compounds, the increasing order of their basic strength is
Option: 1  (I) < (II) < (IV) < (III)
Option: 2  (I) < (II) < (III) < (IV)
Option: 3  (II) < (I) < (IV) < (III)
Option: 4  (II) < (I) < (III) < (IV)

 An ideal gas undergoes a quasi static, reversible process in which its molar heat capacity C remains constant.  If during  this process the relation of pressure P and volume V is given by PVn=constant,  then n is given by (Here CP and CV are molar specific heat at constant pressure and constant volume, respectively)
Option: 1  n=\frac{C_{p}}{C_{v}}

Option: 2  n=\frac{C-C_{p}}{C-C_{v}}

Option: 3 n=\frac{C_{p}-C}{C-C_{v}}

Option: 4  n=\frac{C-C_{v}}{C-C_{p}}

As shown in the figure, a battery of emf \epsilon is connected to an inductor L and resistance R in series. The switch is closed at t = 0. The total charge that flows from the battery, between t = 0 and t = tc (tc is the time constant of the circuit ) is : 

Option: 1 \frac{\epsilon L }{R^{2}} \left ( 1 - \frac{1}{e} \right )
Option: 2 \frac{\epsilon L }{R^{2}}

Option: 3 \frac{\epsilon R }{eL^{2}}

Option: 4 \frac{\epsilon L }{eR^{2}}

As shown in the figure, a particle of mass 10 kg is placed at a point A. When the particle is slightly displaced to its right, it starts moving and reaches the point B. The speed  of the particle at B is x m/s. (Take g = 10 m/s2 ) The value of 'x' to the nearest is ___________.
Option: 1 10
Option: 2 20
Option: 3 40
Option: 4 15

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