# How To Discover Averages In Mathematics?

###### Synopsis

Most competitive exams syllabus includes quantitative aptitude sections where questions related to average are prominent. This article discusses concepts of average including mean, median, mode, and their applications with solved problems. Keep reading to learn how averages are used in different areas of life.

###### Synopsis

Most competitive exams syllabus includes quantitative aptitude sections where questions related to average are prominent. This article discusses concepts of average including mean, median, mode, and their applications with solved problems. Keep reading to learn how averages are used in different areas of life.

Ever wondered how averages impact your everyday choices? Whether you're managing money, estimating time, or looking at scores, averages are a big deal. They're not just part of daily life; they're a key aspect of exams like CAT, SSC CGL, Class 10 and 12 boards, and others. These exams often have questions on averages, and here's the thing: understanding them isn't just for tests. It's about getting better at solving real problems too.

In the NCERT maths books, averages (also called mean or measures of central tendency) start showing up from Class 6, where you learn about data. Class 7 dives into averages specifically in Chapter 3, all about handling data. As you move to higher Classes like 8, 9, and 10, you keep exploring averages in chapters on statistics and centre measures. By the time you reach Classes 11 and 12, the stats lessons go deeper into averages, giving you a solid grip on this important maths idea.

## Basic Concepts of Average

>> Understanding the Mean: The mean, often referred to as the average, is a fundamental concept in statistics used to represent the central tendency of a dataset. It's calculated by summing up all values in a dataset and dividing by the total number of values.

The formula for the mean of a set of n numbers, X1, X2, X3….Xn is calculated as Mean = (X1 + X2 + X3+...+Xn)/n

Weighted Mean:

In situations where some values hold more significance or weight than others, the weighted mean is used. It considers each value's weight, multiplying it by its frequency and summing the products before dividing by the total frequency.

Weighted Mean = ∑xiwi/∑wi

Where,

xi represent each value in data set

wi represent corresponding weighted average of each value

n total number of values in data set.

The mean acts as a central measure, representing the typical value in a dataset. It's pivotal in understanding trends, evaluating performance, and making informed decisions.

Let's consider Maya got 78, 82, 75, 88, and 90 on her practice tests. The mean of these is 82.6. This number tells Maya what her usual score is like, not just the highest or lowest. So, for her final test, Maya can aim for a score around 82.6. It's a good goal because it's based on how she normally does. If her scores change a lot from this average, Maya knows something's different and can figure out why. Understanding the mean helps Maya plan how to study better and aim for steady improvement in her grades.

>> Understanding the Median: The median is a statistical measure that represents the central value in a dataset when arranged in ascending order. Unlike the mean (average), it's not influenced by extreme values, making it a robust measure for the centre of a dataset.

To find the median:

• Arrange the data in ascending order.

• If the dataset has an odd number of values, the median is the middle value.

• If the dataset has an even number of values, the median is the average of the two middle values.

The median offers insights into the typical or middle value of a dataset. It's particularly useful when dealing with skewed distributions or datasets with outliers, as it's less affected by extreme values compared to the mean.

In economics, the median income is a more accurate representation of the average income in a population as it's less affected by extremely high or low earners.

In demographic analysis, the median age or household size is often used to describe central tendencies within a population, providing a clearer picture of typical

The median home price in an area is a more reliable indicator of typical housing costs, especially in regions with widely varying property values.

In healthcare statistics, the median survival rate or median time to recovery is essential in understanding the typical patient outcome.

## Mean vs Median

While the mean can be heavily influenced by extreme values, the median remains stable, making it a better choice for skewed distributions.

>> Understanding the Mode: The mode is a fundamental measure of central tendency that identifies the most frequently occurring value or values in a dataset.

It's an essential tool in data analysis, providing insight into what's typical or common in a set of observations.

Detailing how to identify the mode in a dataset by identifying the value(s) that appear most frequently.

Application of mode

Real-life applications of mode in various fields like finance, market research, demographics, and healthcare.

Highlighting how the mode aids in understanding consumer preferences, market trends, and analysing survey data.

Detailing the significance of mode in analysing categorical data, such as favourite colours, preferred products, or types of cars owned.

Demonstrating how mode helps identify the most popular or prevalent category within a dataset.

## Mode vs Median

The mode represents the most frequent value, whereas the median showcases the middle value. They differ significantly, especially in datasets with multiple modes or irregular distributions.

## Averages Formula

Mean of the first n natural numbers = (n + 1) / 2

Mean of squares of first n natural numbers = (n + 1)(2n + 1) / 6

Mean of cubes of first n natural numbers = n(n + 1)2 / 4

Mean of first n even numbers = n + 1

Mean of squares of first n even numbers = 2 (n + 1) (2n + 1) / 3

Mean of cube of first n even numbers = 2n(n + 1)2

Mean of first n odd numbers = n

Mean of squares of first n odd numbers = (2n + 1) (2n - 1) / 3

Mean of cube of first n odd numbers = n(2n2 – 1)

## Solved Problems

Problem 1: The average weight of eight girls is 50 kilograms. When two girls, R and S, replace two other girls, P and Q, the new average weight drops to 48 kilograms. The weight of P is the same as Q's, and R's weight matches S's weight. Another girl, T, joins the group, making the average weight stay at 48 kilograms. T's weight equals R's weight. Can you figure out the weight of P?

Solution

Average weight = sum of weight of all girls/number of girls

Sum of weight of all girls = Avg weight * number of girls

Case 1: With girls P and Q

Sum of weight of all girls = 8*50 = 400

Case 2: with girls R and S

Sum of weight of all girls = 8*48 = 384

Change in total weight = 400 - 384 = 16

When T joins the group the average weight of the group does not change.

Avg weight = 48

Therefore weight of T = 48 which is equal to weight of R

Since weight of R = Weight of S

= 48Kg

After replacing girls P and Q with R and S, the total weight of the group decreased by 16. This means that Weight of P and Q is 16 kg higher than the weight of R and S.

Weight of P = Weight of R + 8 = 48 + 8 =56 kg

Hence Weight of P is 56 kg

Trick

Average weight of group is decreased by 2 kg this means total weight of group decreased by 8*2 =16 kg

Since Average weight of the group has decreased, the initial girls are heavier than the replaced one. Both are girls equal weight so weight of P = weight of R + 8 kg

When T girl join the group, average weight does not change, mean the weight of T is equal to average weight of group = 48 kg

Thus weight of P = 48 + 8 = 56 kg

Problem 2: After completing 50 innings, the batsman's average score stood at 46.4. By the time he finished 60 innings, his average increased by 2.6. Can you calculate what his average score was in the last ten innings?

Solution

Given that Avg weight of 50 innings = 46.4

By the finished of 60th inning = avg increased by 2.6

Find: Avg score of last 10 innings

Avg increased by 2.6 for 60 innings

Total increase = 60*2.6 =156

156 runs are more scored in last 10 innings as compared to first 50 innings

Avg of last 10 innings = avg of first 50 innings + 156/10

Avg of last 10 innings = 46.4 + 15.6 = 62

Hence, Avg of last 10 innings is 62.

Hope this article helps you to understand average concepts such as mean, median, mode, and how you can use these concepts in different areas of life.

Students

Colleges

Exams

E-Books