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NEET Biology: Metabolism And Body Weight

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By Irshad Anwar
7 Mar'22  5 min read
NEET Biology: Metabolism And Body Weight

From the role of genetics to certain hormone sensitivities and your eating habits, a number of explanations are there for why some people gain weight while others don’t. Read on to find out more on metabolism which is a scoring topic in NEET.

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NEET Biology: Metabolism And Body Weight

From the role of genetics to certain hormone sensitivities and your eating habits, a number of explanations are there for why some people gain weight while others don’t. Read on to find out more on metabolism which is a scoring topic in NEET.

Perhaps you can eat whatever you want without putting on weight, or perhaps you know someone who has this mysterious capability, but either way, we have heard of those who never need to worry about what type of food they eat. In this image-obsessed society, this capability is generally an advantage, but for those who are light-weighted, this boon can feel more like a curse. According to conventional wisdom, eating loads of calories should make an individual gain weight, thus it can be confusing as well as frustrating if you want to put on some pounds but can’t obtain results regardless of consuming lots of food. Before we attack this problem, let’s start with the basics. What can you do about it? To find out, don’t take your eyes off and keep reading as Careers360 explains.

Still, there’s presumably a reason for it, if the body seems to disobey the laws of thermodynamics by burning calories without losing weight. The answer to this question is quite complex as several factors are at play; be it nutrition, genetics, or behavioral factors. Actually, there are numerous factors that usually cause this effect. Factors affecting this effect are given below: -

Role of Genetics

Genetics plays a part in managing body weight as it influences hormone sensitivity and metabolic rate which allows burning calories faster in some people than others. Also, it makes them less sensitive to food cues and thus resists cravings.

In contrast to this, Dr. Ines Barroso – a researcher at the University of Cambridge in England – says that there is no evidence that some people are born to burn more energy than others. In contrast to this, researchers have identified more than 250 distinct regions linked with obesity. In the study published in PLOS Genetics in the year 2019, thin participants were found to have some of the genes linked with obesity.

Also Read,


Probably, you have heard the term “metabolism” before, but you might not be familiar with the term BMR or basal metabolic rate. BMR is the rate of minimum energy expenditure to maintain life processes; in other words, it is the number of calories you need to burn to derive energy when you are at rest. This rate differs from person to person, based on several factors that include diet, genetics, and activity level. If you eat loads of food but never gain weight, there is a possibility that your BMR is high. In other words, some people need more energy to do the same task or even during rest and thus burn more calories and eventually need more calories through food.

Leptin Sensitivity

Leptin is a starvation hormone that regulates appetite. People who have a higher sensitivity to leptin hormone control the craving better. The body doesn’t respond to the brain signal in the absence of leptin and can cause weight gain due to uncontrolled feeding. So, people with leptin deficiency can gain weight.

Food Choices and frequency

It may feel like “eating a lot” is the only reason to gain some pounds but choices of food you eat also matter as much. After all, it is calories that matter; a plate of grilled vegetables or salad does not contain as many calories as slithery sandwiches or fries. If you want to put on weight, include a few calorie-dense foods such as cheese, full cream milk, and meat.

Actually, the people who seem to eat a lot in front of you eat as much as you do. It might be possible for those people to compensate for it later by having a little meal or only one or two meals in a day. It means their consumed calories per day remain the same as yours.

Physical Activity

You burn more calories during physical activity such as daily routine activity or while working out. An individual who works out regularly burns more calories even at rest than those who don’t exercise or work out; thus having an effect on your weight. However, fat storage in some conditions is appropriate such as in lactation, pregnancy, growth, and development. Otherwise, it is not desirable.

The same amount of ENERGY IN (calories consumed) and ENERGY OUT (calories burned) over time = weight stays the same = energy balance at equilibrium

More Intake than expenditure over time = weight gain

More expenditure than Intake over time = weight loss

The Set-Point

The brain and the body have a set point or defended position of weight according to research published in the "International Journal of Obesity Supplements" in the year 2016. The neural system of an individual tries to maintain this set point. Environmental factors, genetic factors, and diet could be blamed to have an impact on set point which is adaptable to some degree.


Sleep deprivation stimulates the hormone cortisol which plays an important part in regulating hunger and results in weight gain. So, a sound sleep of 7-8 hours is a must to maintain weight.


It is a condition in which a person is unable to absorb the nutrients and calories effectively from the consumed food. This issue is found common in those individuals who have digestive ails such as celiac complaints or cystic fibrosis and lactose intolerance. This issue could be blamed for not gaining weight.

How to gain weight

There are many points that you should keep in mind while trying to gain weight. Desserts and junk food contain a lot of calories and can help you to increase your weight but this gained weight would be unhealthy visceral fat that might leave you worse off. So, gaining weight is not always healthy. Any fat gain should be balanced with muscle mass by limiting the rate of gaining weight and consuming more protein in your diet.

You can increase your calories input without increasing the quantity or volume of the food. The calories can be added easily to a dish by cooking food with oils such as coconut oil or olive oil without increasing the volume by gravies or condiments.

Include calorie-thick whole grains -- whole grain chuck, cereals, or pasta -- and stiff vegetables, similar as sludge or sweet potatoes, at each mess and snack.

  • Health sciences
  • Health
  • Food and drink
  • Nutrition
  • Food
  • Determinants of health
  • Obesity
  • Dieting

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