Paper 1. FOUNDATIONS OF YOGA
- Meaning and definition of the term Yoga. Yoga as “goal” as well as the “means”. Different connotations and meanings of Yoga. Misconceptions about Yoga. Comprehensive nature and scope of Yoga. Aims and objectives of Yoga.
- A brief outline of the history of Yoga from ancient to modern times. Modern developments and trends in Yoga. A brief introduction to the vast literature on Yoga including Hathayoga Pradipika, Gherenda Samhita, Tirumandiram etc.
- Patanjali’s Ashtanga Yoga. Ethical basis of Yoga. Different traditions and schools of Yoga. Important Yogic concepts such as panchakosha, pranavayu, tattva, triguna, tridosha, klesha and antaraya.
- Introduction to and scientific perspective of important Yogic techniques like asana,pranayama, kriya, mudra, bandha, jathis and surya namaskar.
- Importance of relaxation in yoga. Different concepts and methods. The four fold relaxation of Swami Gitananda Giri. Spanda-nishpanda concept of relaxation in Yoga.
- Concepts of Samyama with emphasis on dharana-dhyana (concentration and meditation) in the yogic context. A philosophical, psychological and scientific perspective of these techniques.
- Introduction to anatomy and physiology of various systems. Human body as an integrated whole. Cells, tissues, organs and systems of human body. Their mutually supportive and harmonious working relationships in health and their breakdown in disease.
- Similarities and dissimilarities between Yogic practices and physical exercises. Asanas vs. muscular exercises. Pranayama vs. deep breathing exercises. Role of various yogic techniques in purification and fortification of the body-mind-spirit complex.
Paper 3. APPLICATIONS OF YOGA
- “Spiritual Yoga” (adhyatma yoga) and “applied Yoga” (loukika Yoga). Scope and limitations of applied Yoga. Introduction to the application of Yoga in different fields of human activity. Empowering the individual through Yoga.
- Role of Yoga in enhancing the quality of life of senior citizens and in the management of various degenerative aspects of aging. Concepts and practices of " Silver Yoga"
- "Divyanga Yoga". Yoga for people with special needs, especially in children with mental and physical disabilities.
- Role of yoga in preventing and managing health issues in women and children,including menarche, antenatal and postnatal care, menopause.
- Role of Yoga in rehabilitation/ addictions and in tackling social problems. Psycho-physiological improvements through Yoga in sporting activities, both recreational and professional. Yoga sport competitions: benefits and drawbacks.
- Role of Yoga in enhancing productivity in the corporate sector. Stresses and strains of executive jobs and their Yogic remedy. Yoga for self development, self motivation, to reduce monotony and stress and enhance the capacity of the individual as well as the corporate.
- Personality development through Yoga and its role in enhancing personal efficiency.Managing the hectic lifestyle of medical and paramedical professionals. Regaining the “art of medicine”, a health interpersonal doctor-patient relationship through Yoga. Code of conduct for Yoga therapists.
- Role of Yoga in management of cancer: adjunct and palliative role of Yoga. Pain and fatigue relief. Improvement in QoL. Dealing with end life crisis. Care of the caregiver.
Paper 2. FOUNDATIONS OF YOGA THERAPY
- Yoga defined as samatvam (integration and harmony). Different aspects and meanings of Yoga as related to health. Meaning of the term “positive health”. Yoga as a system that fosters positive health. Cultivation of desirable psychological attitudes and reconditioning of the psycho-physiological apparatus for positive health.
- Concepts of pancha-kosha, dwadasha prana, and tri-sharira and their special relationship to health and disease (adi-vyadhi). Yogic perspective of health and disease: integration vs disintegration, sukha vs duhkha.
- Yoga as a therapy: its need and application in modern health care. Principles,mechanisms and modalities of Yoga chikitsa. Vyuha model (heya-hetu,hana-upaya). Diagnostic methods of yoga chikitsa. Yoga chikitsa vs yogopathy: tracing the root cause of disease and applying the remedy, rather than symptomatic management.
- Relationship of Yoga with the AYUSH and CAM systems of medicine with emphasis on ayurveda, siddha and naturopathy. Yoga as the original body mind medicine and ideal lifestyle. Concepts of ahar, vihar, achar, vichar and vyavahar. Yogic principles of diet in relation to the dosha and guna concepts.
- Role and importance attached to the mind in Yoga. Importance of right attitude(pratipaksha bhavanam) in tackling common conflicts and frustrations. Role of yama-niyama(restraints and regulations) and correct psychological attitudes (maitri-karuna et al) for psycho-somatic health.
- Importance of various techniques of hatha and jnana Yoga in the promotion of physical health, mental clarity and emotional wellbeing. Role of mantra, japa, bhajan, chanting, yantra and yatra in healing. Importance of faith and prayer in healing. Karma and its role in health and disease. Role of music (nada yoga) and other alternative therapies.
- Psycho-neuro-endocrine and psycho- neuro-immune correlates of homeostasis and stress:. Autonomic nervous system and its role in health and disease. Balancing the right and left energies through loma-viloma, ha-tha and surya-chandra. Important aspects related to the shat kriyas (cleaning practices of Yoga).
- Research as the “central feeder” aspect of modern, evidence- based Yoga therapy.Modern research findings and their applications in Yoga therapy. Need for modern methods of research in understanding and evaluation of Yogic phenomena.
Paper 4. CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF YOGA THERAPY
- Role of yoga as a therapy in various Cardiovascular disorders including hypertension,atherosclerosis, CAD, stroke, heart failure, arrhythmias as well as in cardiac rehabilitation.
- Role of yoga as a therapy in various respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive airway diseases with emphasis on bronchial asthma and bronchitis. Concepts and practices of the Hathenas and shat kriyas in the managements of breathing disorders.
- Role of yoga as a therapy in various musculoskeletal conditions such as lumbago,cervical spondylitis, arthritis, repetitive strain injuries.
- Role of yoga as a therapy in digestive disorders: peptic ulcer, IBS, liver disease, chronic constipation, hemorrhoids.
- Role of yoga as a therapy in neurological conditions including neuropathies,Parkinson's disease, dementia. Role of yoga in the management of chronic pain.
- Role of yoga as a therapy in various endocrine disorders including growth disorders, thyroid, reproductive disorders.
- Role of yoga as a therapy in various Metabolic disorders including prevention and management of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome.
- Role of yoga in various psychiatric disorders including BPAD, anxiety, depression.Role of yoga in immune disorders. Philosophical & psychological concepts of yogic counseling.