The civil law focuses on the legal code and asks the judge to act as fact-finders, deciding whether a particular party has violated a code.
All modern civil-law systems have made use of uncodified statutory law to regulate broad areas of social and economic life. Influence and salience of classical codes have receded, as many code-based legal systems now rely on extensive areas of non-codified “special legislation” as well as the case and civil law of national and supranational courts. The civil laws will increase in power with global economic activity and the growth of international and supranational legal institutions. An effective balance can be reached through a civil code that would seek to reconcile the traditional civil-law codes with modern legal developments.
The civil lawyers are in huge demand and have a great scope for reaching heights in their career with wisdom and expertise. The following article describes every detail of the civil law course along with the course fees, availability of jobs and expected salaries.
Integrated course after class 12 (5 years): Students determined to build an illustrious career in the legal profession after class 12 can opt for a 5-year integrated course which awards an LLB or Bachelor of Laws degree upon completion. This programme has a civil law course included in its curriculum.
Undergraduate level (LLB- 3-4 years): Students deciding to study law later in their career can join an LLB course after 3 years’ graduation in any stream. This will again be considered as a graduate degree in law. There is no separate LLB Civil Law course in India. Civil law is taught as a part of the LLB curriculum.
Postgraduate level (LLM- 2 years): Master of Law or LLM is a two years’ programme which can be done by individuals having an LLB degree. LLM Civil Law course is a postgraduate programme having immense value in the Indian legal system.
Diploma level: A diploma in civil law can be pursued only after graduation. The duration of the course is 1 year. It can be done in:
Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
Alternation dispute resolution system
Arbitration, conciliation and alternative dispute resolution system
Candidates can also opt for a postgraduate diploma in any of the following branches of civil law:
Tax management and administration
Patent law and practice
Labour law and welfare
IPR and patent law
The minimum duration of civil law course is 12 months. The integrated course after class 12 has a minimum duration of 5 years i.e. 60 months. Some extensions can be allowed to students who need to clear their backlogs but that totally depends on the law institute or university where the course is being pursued. Graduation takes 36 months to complete while post-graduation is of 24 months duration. The maximum duration for a diploma course is 24-36 months. The research-based programmes can take 48-60 months. The duration is largely dependent on the institute’s policy, chosen research area and the guidance and resources available.
As mentioned earlier, there is no undergraduate civil law course as such; it is taught as a part of the LLB curriculum. Civil law courses are available only at the postgraduate level. For being eligible to get an LLM degree in civil law course, one must possess an LLB degree from a recognised university. There are entrance examinations held for the admission into the master of law course. One must pass those exams with the stipulated cut off marks.
One cannot study civil law after class 12 as it is not offered in India in any undergraduate course. The students have to enrol themselves into the LLB programme. For LLB course of 3 years, the candidates have to score a minimum of 45% marks in the class 10+2 examination from a recognised board. For admission into the BA LLB course of 5 years, the criteria remain the same. However, there is relaxation in the marks percentage for reserved category students.
Different types of entrance examinations are held that determine the level one can get admission into. There are individual college or university-based admission tests for diploma programmes. There are 17 National Law Universities (NLUs) in India and CLAT examination grants admission into these. The admission process for every college varies. Some of the common entrance examinations are:
AILET - All India Law Entrance Test
AIBE - (All India Bar Examination)
AP LAWCET - Andhra Pradesh Law Common Entrance Test
SAAT - Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University Admission Test
LSAT - Law School Admission Test
CUSAT - Cochin University of Science and Technology Common Admission Test BBA LLB
The tuition fee and college expenses for civil law courses are as follows:
a) Diploma level: The fees for diploma degree range between Rs.5000 and Rs.25, 000 for a one-year duration.
b) Undergraduate level: It varies with different colleges. The fee of the undergraduate degree lies between Rs.22, 000 and Rs.2, 00, 000.
c) Postgraduate: The LLM civil law course students have to pay fees in the range of Rs.5000 to Rs.5, 00, 000 for the entire duration of 2 years.
India is a country with constitutional law. Civil law contributes largely to the judicial and legal system of India. Thus the demand for civil lawyers is wide in this country. In India, civil law can be pursued from the aspect of family law, tort law, media law, contract law, administrative law etc. These areas being largely dependent on precedents require more and more involvement of civil lawyers. The jurisdiction of Indian civil courts is specified by the civil law and the code of civil procedures (CPC). So, studying a civil law course and building a career in it is quite rewarding in India.
Other nations like the United States, Singapore, Australia, France, New Zealand etc have constitutional law implemented. So, the demand for civil lawyers is high in these countries too. Situations of civil importance are taken care of by civil lawyers in these countries. They are vested with inherent discretionary powers. Civil law solves disputes between individuals and/or institutions completely impartially. Therefore, the scope of civil law is high abroad as well.
The list of the major course subjects for both undergraduate and postgraduate programmes is as follows:
The specialisations are:
The civil lawyers have to present cases to juries and judges at the state civil courts. They can also work for the investigation of official data in the public or private sector enterprises. They can assist in deciphering laws and rulings for persons, businesses and organizations. They can work for the filing departments like filing legal appeals in the state and federal court of appeals. They may act as negotiators in the settlements of legal disputes. They have the scope of formulating legal briefs. Many law students after passing from a civil law institute also join banks and get placed in credit departments where their expertise is greatly valued for appraisal of cases.
Amarchand & Mangaldas & Suresh A Shroff & Co
AZB & Partners
Khaitan & Co
J Sagar Associates
Luthra & Luthra
Lakshmikumaran & Sridharan
Nishith Desai Associates
S &R Associates
Talwar Thakore & Associates
Anand and Anand
Desai & Diwanji
Economic Laws Practice
Wadia Ghandy & Co
Justice is an ideal and law is the tool. Law exists to establish and justice is incidental to the law and order. The good of the people is the greatest law and the lawyers do a supreme job of upholding the peace and sanity within the country by delivering the right justice to the victims. Civil law is of huge importance for maintaining peace and parity in society. Hence, civil law courses are in demand at any point in time.
Analytical skill: Clients come to civil lawyers with issues and problems or disputes that they have to solve. Thus possessing strong analytical skill is necessary as that will help them analyse the information as provided by the client, understand the relevance of the facts and explore viable solutions.
Logical thinking and ability to stay unbiased: Yes, as a lawyer, one needs to defend his client(s) but while preparing the case, he has to take every aspect into consideration and for that, he should not be biased towards any side. Only then, he can think logically and build a strong case against the opponent.
Research skill: As a civil lawyer, one has to prepare legal advice for a client and represent him/her. This calls for substantial research. Thus research skill is important which would allow the civil lawyer to identify which regulations and laws are suitable for the particular case at hand.
Interpersonal skill: The relationship with the client must be full of confidence and respect towards each other. This can be achieved by efficient interpersonal skill. This way the client feels comfortable with the lawyer and does not hold back information.
Verbal communication skill: A civil lawyer represents the client and speaks on his behalf only. Good speaking skill in a civil lawyer helps him present the evidence and explain them to the jury and judge clearly.
Problem-solving skill: It is mandatory for civil lawyers to listen and understand the client’s situation in an objective manner and evaluate the same accordingly. Problem-solving skill helps them prepare defence and recommendation in the best interest of the client.
Writing skill: A lot of civil lawyer’s work involves documentation of wills, power of attorney, and trusts etc. Thus this skill is also important.
Civil law course curriculum includes four sections. These are:
Intellectual property law
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