Civil Law

Civil Law

What is Civil Law

The civil law focuses on the legal code and asks the judge to act as fact-finders, deciding whether a particular party has violated a code.  

All modern civil-law systems have made use of uncodified statutory law to regulate broad areas of social and economic life. Influence and salience of classical codes have receded, as many code-based legal systems now rely on extensive areas of non-codified “special legislation” as well as the case and civil law of national and supranational courts. The civil laws will increase in power with global economic activity and the growth of international and supranational legal institutions. An effective balance can be reached through a civil code that would seek to reconcile the traditional civil-law codes with modern legal developments.

The civil lawyers are in huge demand and have a great scope for reaching heights in their career with wisdom and expertise. The following article describes every detail of the civil law course along with the course fees, availability of jobs and expected salaries.

Civil Law: Degrees and Levels 

Integrated course after class 12 (5 years): Students determined to build an illustrious career in the legal profession after class 12 can opt for a 5-year integrated course which awards an LLB or Bachelor of Laws degree upon completion. This programme has a civil law course included in its curriculum.

Undergraduate level (LLB- 3-4 years): Students deciding to study law later in their career can join an LLB course after 3 years’ graduation in any stream. This will again be considered as a graduate degree in law. There is no separate LLB Civil Law course in India. Civil law is taught as a part of the LLB curriculum.

Postgraduate level (LLM- 2 years): Master of Law or LLM is a two years’ programme which can be done by individuals having an LLB degree. LLM Civil Law course is a postgraduate programme having immense value in the Indian legal system.

Diploma level: A diploma in civil law can be pursued only after graduation. The duration of the course is 1 year. It can be done in:

  1. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) 

  2. Alternation dispute resolution system 

  3. Arbitration, conciliation and alternative dispute resolution system

Candidates can also opt for a postgraduate diploma in any of the following branches of civil law:

  1. Securities law

  2. Taxation practice

  3. Taxation law

  4. Patents law

  5. Tax management and administration

  6. Patent law and practice

  7. Media laws

  8. Labour laws

  9. Labour practice 

  10. Labour law and welfare

  11. Industrial law

  12. IPR and patent law

  13. Business law

Minimum and Maximum Duration of a Civil Law Course

The minimum duration of civil law course is 12 months. The integrated course after class 12 has a minimum duration of 5 years i.e. 60 months. Some extensions can be allowed to students who need to clear their backlogs but that totally depends on the law institute or university where the course is being pursued. Graduation takes 36 months to complete while post-graduation is of 24 months duration. The maximum duration for a diploma course is 24-36 months. The research-based programmes can take 48-60 months. The duration is largely dependent on the institute’s policy, chosen research area and the guidance and resources available.

Eligibility Criteria (UG & PG) of Civil Law

As mentioned earlier, there is no undergraduate civil law course as such; it is taught as a part of the LLB curriculum. Civil law courses are available only at the postgraduate level. For being eligible to get an LLM degree in civil law course, one must possess an LLB degree from a recognised university. There are entrance examinations held for the admission into the master of law course. One must pass those exams with the stipulated cut off marks. 

Admission Criteria for Civil Law Course after Class 12 

One cannot study civil law after class 12 as it is not offered in India in any undergraduate course. The students have to enrol themselves into the LLB programme. For LLB course of 3 years, the candidates have to score a minimum of 45% marks in the class 10+2 examination from a recognised board. For admission into the BA LLB course of 5 years, the criteria remain the same. However, there is relaxation in the marks percentage for reserved category students.

Entrance Examinations for Civil Law

Different types of entrance examinations are held that determine the level one can get admission into. There are individual college or university-based admission tests for diploma programmes. There are 17 National Law Universities (NLUs) in India and CLAT examination grants admission into these. The admission process for every college varies. Some of the common entrance examinations are:

  • AILET - All India Law Entrance Test

  • AIBE - (All India Bar Examination)

  • AP LAWCET - Andhra Pradesh Law Common Entrance Test 

  • SAAT - Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University Admission Test 

  • LSAT - Law School Admission Test 

  • CUSAT - Cochin University of Science and Technology Common Admission Test BBA LLB 

Fees and Expenses of the Civil law Course

The tuition fee and college expenses for civil law courses are as follows:

a) Diploma level: The fees for diploma degree range between Rs.5000 and Rs.25, 000 for a one-year duration. 

b) Undergraduate level: It varies with different colleges. The fee of the undergraduate degree lies between Rs.22, 000 and Rs.2, 00, 000.

c) Postgraduate: The LLM civil law course students have to pay fees in the range of Rs.5000 to Rs.5, 00, 000 for the entire duration of 2 years. 

Scope of Civil Law in India and Abroad

India is a country with constitutional law. Civil law contributes largely to the judicial and legal system of India. Thus the demand for civil lawyers is wide in this country. In India, civil law can be pursued from the aspect of family law, tort law, media law, contract law, administrative law etc.  These areas being largely dependent on precedents require more and more involvement of civil lawyers. The jurisdiction of Indian civil courts is specified by the civil law and the code of civil procedures (CPC).  So, studying a civil law course and building a career in it is quite rewarding in India.

Other nations like the United States, Singapore, Australia, France, New Zealand etc have constitutional law implemented. So, the demand for civil lawyers is high in these countries too. Situations of civil importance are taken care of by civil lawyers in these countries. They are vested with inherent discretionary powers. Civil law solves disputes between individuals and/or institutions completely impartially. Therefore, the scope of civil law is high abroad as well. 

Course Subjects

The list of the major course subjects for both undergraduate and postgraduate programmes is as follows:

Basic Subjects in graduation

  • Labour Law
  • Law of tort & Consumer Protection Act
  • Family laws 1
  • Crime
  • Family laws 2
  • Constitutional law
  • Contract
  • Professional ethics
  • Trust
  • Criminology
  • Women & law
  • International Economics Law
  • Property Law including the transfer of Property Act
  • Law of Evidence
  • Arbitration, conciliation & alternative
  • Human rights & international law
  • Jurisprudence
  • Practical training - legal aid
  • Environmental law
  • Law of insurance
  • Comparative law
  • Conflict of Laws
  • Intellectual property law
  • Civil Procedure Code (CPC)
  • Law of contract II
  • Interpretation of statutes
  • Banking law including the Negotiable Instruments Act
  • Code of criminal procedure
  • Companies Act
  • Practical training - moot court land laws including ceiling and other local laws
  • Legal writing
  • Administrative law
  • Practical training II - drafting
  • Investment & securities law
  • Co-operative law
  • Law of taxation

The major subjects in post-graduation are

  • Comparative jurisprudence
  • Teaching methods & research methodology      
  • Comparative constitutional law
  • Public international law

The specialisations are:

  • Constitutional law
  • Taxation law
  • Family law
  • Corporate law and governance (including international business)
  • Environmental law
  • Jurisprudence
  • Criminal law
  • Human rights
  • Intellectual property law                                    
  • Insurance laws
  • International trade and business laws

Careers in Civil Law

The civil lawyers have to present cases to juries and judges at the state civil courts. They can also work for the investigation of official data in the public or private sector enterprises. They can assist in deciphering laws and rulings for persons, businesses and organizations. They can work for the filing departments like filing legal appeals in the state and federal court of appeals. They may act as negotiators in the settlements of legal disputes. They have the scope of formulating legal briefs. Many law students after passing from a civil law institute also join banks and get placed in credit departments where their expertise is greatly valued for appraisal of cases.

Job Profiles and Top Recruiters

  • Civil lawyer: They are the ones who tackle non-criminal cases. Often individuals or organisations fall out and these disputes are dealt with by civil lawyers. Legal claims and property are the main concerns in these cases.

  • Legal advisor: They provide advice to the clients regarding legal decisions, various legal issues and documentation policies. Various organisations recruit legal advisors who would take care of the legal disputes, resolve and prevent them as they occur between the company and the clients, company and the government etc. 

  • Professor: They impart knowledge to the next generation of students who are interested in making civil law as their career. Professors join various colleges and institutes offering the course and share their experience and expertise with the students. 

  • Journalist: After studying civil law course one can opt for this career too where they collect news and stories of civil importance and present them to the readers. They represent arguments, collect information from all possible sources and make the audience aware of the events happening across the globe.

  • Social worker: With the knowledge of civil rights the candidates can become social workers where they identify the needs of communities and the people living in them. They become a part of a widespread network which assesses the situations and identifies goals. 

  • Political strategist: They are the political consultants of a particular political party or a candidate who is standing in the election. Planning campaign strategies, arranging public events for promoting the candidate, coordinating the staff associated with the campaign are a few of the basic activities of political strategists. 

The top recruiters in the civil law space in India are:

Amarchand & Mangaldas & Suresh A Shroff & Co

AZB & Partners

Khaitan & Co

J Sagar Associates

Luthra & Luthra


Lakshmikumaran & Sridharan

Nishith Desai Associates

S &R Associates

Talwar Thakore & Associates

Platinum Partners

Anand and Anand

Desai & Diwanji

Economic Laws Practice

Wadia Ghandy & Co

Justice is an ideal and law is the tool. Law exists to establish and justice is incidental to the law and order. The good of the people is the greatest law and the lawyers do a supreme job of upholding the peace and sanity within the country by delivering the right justice to the victims. Civil law is of huge importance for maintaining peace and parity in society. Hence, civil law courses are in demand at any point in time. 

Required Skillset for Civil Law

Analytical skill: Clients come to civil lawyers with issues and problems or disputes that they have to solve. Thus possessing strong analytical skill is necessary as that will help them analyse the information as provided by the client, understand the relevance of the facts and explore viable solutions.

Logical thinking and ability to stay unbiased: Yes, as a lawyer, one needs to defend his client(s) but while preparing the case, he has to take every aspect into consideration and for that, he should not be biased towards any side. Only then, he can think logically and build a strong case against the opponent.

Research skill: As a civil lawyer, one has to prepare legal advice for a client and represent him/her. This calls for substantial research. Thus research skill is important which would allow the civil lawyer to identify which regulations and laws are suitable for the particular case at hand.

Interpersonal skill: The relationship with the client must be full of confidence and respect towards each other. This can be achieved by efficient interpersonal skill. This way the client feels comfortable with the lawyer and does not hold back information.

Verbal communication skill: A civil lawyer represents the client and speaks on his behalf only. Good speaking skill in a civil lawyer helps him present the evidence and explain them to the jury and judge clearly.

Problem-solving skill: It is mandatory for civil lawyers to listen and understand the client’s situation in an objective manner and evaluate the same accordingly. Problem-solving skill helps them prepare defence and recommendation in the best interest of the client.

Writing skill: A lot of civil lawyer’s work involves documentation of wills, power of attorney, and trusts etc. Thus this skill is also important.

Course Curriculum for Civil Law

Civil law course curriculum includes four sections. These are:

  • Family law

  • Intellectual property law

  • Labour law

  • International law

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