Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation is a subject broadly concerned with employment relationships. This is a multidisciplinary field of study which examines the interrelations of varying complexities between employers and employees, employer organisations and the state with trade and labour unions.
The purpose of the Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation field is to promote the understanding of worker's (or labourer's) welfare and how the nation's economic prosperity can be achieved. With the help of Industrial Relations laws, living standards can be improved, and increased globalisation could be achieved through flexibility in the labour market. Similarly, Labour Legislation Laws mediate work relationships and focus on the right of the employees at the place of work.
Candidates who wish to pursue LLB must fulfil certain eligibility criteria in addition to clearing the relevant entrance exam. Some of the main points illustrated by most law schools in their eligibility criteria include:
Candidates must have completed their graduation from a recognised college or institute,
Candidates must have scored at least 50%-55% marks during their graduation,
There is no age limit.
At the LLM level, the eligibility criteria that candidates are expected to fulfil to qualify for the course include:
Candidates must have completed their LLB from a recognised and reputed university,
Candidates must have scored at least 55% aggregate in their LLB course,
A 5% relaxation will be offered to reserved category students.
Entrance Exams for Studying Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation
Aspirants can pursue a Bachelor of Law (LLB) course in Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation at the undergraduate level. With this degree as a stepping stone, they can then go on to pursue higher studies via Master of Law (LLM) or PG Diploma in the field.
LLB (or law, as the degree is more commonly known) and MLS are competitive courses, both of which allow admissions through several entrance examinations. Only candidates who qualify for the course by clearing the relevant entrance exam are eligible to pursue LLB or LLM in Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation. Some of the common entrance exams conducted both at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels include:
Common Law Admission Test (CLAT)- This is a national-level law entrance examination conducted for aspirants looking to pursue LLB or LLM courses from any of the twenty-two National Law Universities (NLUs) in the country. In addition to NLUs, many other self-financed and private law schools accept CLAT scores for admissions. Candidates who clear the cut off in this exam are eligible to apply for law courses offered by these institutes.
All India Law Entrance Test (AILET)- This is a university-specific entrance test conducted at the national level by the National Law University Delhi. This institute conducts the AILET exclusively for admissions to its own undergraduate, postgraduate and doctorate law degree courses. NLU Delhi does not accept any other entrance exam for its admissions.
Law School Admission Test (LSAT)- This is an entrance exam conducted by the Law School Admission Council. Conducted for both undergraduate and postgraduate law aspirants, the LSAT shortlists candidates for admissions to over 85 law schools all over India.
Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation Laws are concerned with the improvement of workers' economic conditions in India. These laws aim to develop and promote compatible labour management systems and relations, regulate work and production by the minimisation of industrial conflicts, and to socialise various industries by establishing the government as the employer.
Upon completing their studies in the Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation field, candidates can pursue several prospects, from becoming a paralegal to an advocate or lawyer, a lecturer or a law officer. With a generous average entry-level salary ranging from Rs.4 lakhs p.a. (Approx.)to Rs.6 lakhs p.a. (Approx.), these graduates are offered positions in government agencies, multinational corporations, law firms, banks, judicial bodies, litigation, colleges and universities, so on and so forth.
The scope of any law graduate is very high both in India and abroad; the law is a highly sought-after career because of its highly rewarding and highly prestigious stature. Studying Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation opens up many opportunities for those candidates who wish to fight legally for workers and their economic rights.
Some of the course subjects which are covered in Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation courses, following the course outcomes as outlined by the university include:
Labour Laws Origin and Development
Development of Labour Laws in India
Industrial Disputes Act, 1947
Minimum Wages Act, 1948
Laws Relating to Wages and Monetary Benefits
Industrial Employment Act, 1946
Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act, 1970
Employees State Insurance Act, 1948
Employer's Liability Act, 1938
Fatal Accident Act, 1855
Trade Union Act, 1926
Law Relating to Social Security and Safety Measures
Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923
Maternity Benefit Act, 1961
Sales Promotion Employees (Conditions of Service) Act 1976
Factory Act of 1948
Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972
Equal Remuneration Act, 1976
Payment of Bonus Act, 1965
Payment of Wages Act, 1965
India has a long way to go in terms of labourer rights, economic conditions of the labour class and industrial relations in general. As a professional in the Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation field, candidates can expect to achieve great heights in enforcing employee rights and ensuring more fair treatment of the disabled or disadvantaged sections of employees who can suffer from lower wages due to circumstances out of their control.
Those who are genuinely interested in helping to facilitate fairness and better treatment of employees, particularly those of the daily wage class whose earnings are meagre, to begin with, can pursue truly rewarding careers by making actual changes in peoples' lives. Beginning at a junior level in the Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation field, working under experienced lawyers in firms, candidates can gradually ascend the ladder into more reputable, higher responsibility, senior-level positions.
A career in Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation, can be gruelling and challenging at times, but the outcomes, as well as the salary packages, make it just as lucrative and rewarding.
Job Profiles Offered in Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation Field
Upon completing their studies in Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation, candidates can receive employment opportunities in several different job roles under various recruiting organisations or law firms.
Based on the type of work they are interested in doing and the type of environment in which they can envision themselves working, some of the common job profiles that these candidates can choose from include:
Manager of Industrial Relations
The Manager of Industrial Relations is responsible for providing high quality industrial and employee relations advice to government, chief executives of agencies under the govt, and other client groups for better industrial relations
Lecturers are responsible for generating and delivering lessons and lectures following the university syllabus in a college or university
A Legal Administrator is responsible for helping the lawyers during the documentation processes, they also assist lawyers in other activities which are related to a client or case
Labour Relations Manager
A Labour Relations Manager is responsible for the negotiation of agreements between a labour organisation or individual employees and a company. They also are responsible for researching labour law, economic data, bargaining methods, and common wage data that applies to all careers, states, and industries
Labour Welfare Officer
A Labour Welfare Officer acts as a negotiating officer, and deals with the wage and employment-related grievances, bringing about peaceful settlements of legal cases that involve labour, shaping and formulating labour policies, devising measures to prevent antisocial activities
Top Recruiters in Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation Sector
Some of the top recruiters of candidates in this field include:
Committee on Education and Labour
American Federation of Labour & Congress of Industrial Organizations
National Employment Counselling Association
National Employment Lawyers Association
In any career, success is never limited to just acquiring the relevant degree; success comes from inculcating and honing other skills which are equally important to the job as the degree is. Some of the important skills that professionals in Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation should inculcate in themselves to become indispensable to the job include:
Communication Skills- Communication skills probably top the list of most important soft skills in any career path or profession. Candidates possessing excellent oral and written communication skills are preferred by most recruiters as opposed to other candidates aspiring for a job. In this profession, candidates must be able to establish trust and develop long-term relations with clients and negotiate settlements by demonstrating effective listening and persuasive speaking. Excellent written skills come into play when drafting legal letters and documents.
Legal Research and Analysis- When working in a law firm or practising as a barrister, candidates are required to always stay updated on current developments, well-versed with figures and facts, and conduct research and analysis to process the researched information into something that can be used towards their case. Candidates' research skills are also imperative in conducting background research when taking up complex cases.
Resilience and Self Confidence- A highly competitive and challenging career, candidates in Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation must showcase commitment and dedication towards their work. When pursuing a career in this field, resilience is essential in building up a strong case. When facing failure, while most people tend to feel dejected and give up, true determination in candidates ensures that they never back off when fighting a more difficult case.
Time Management- This is another essential skill in pretty much any profession; time management skills help professionals immensely, not only with meeting challenging demands of clients but also with competent multi-tasking when a great deal of work needs to be juggled which is often the case in this career.
Commercial Acumen- Also known as commercial awareness, this entails an awareness of recent developments and incidents in the business world, especially developments that affect Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation.
Courses in Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation are structured around certain objectives which are concerned with the overall development and preparation of students for success in a gruelling and demanding career. Students who pursue these courses can:
Clearly understand and explain the concept of Industrial Relations,
Elaborate on the important causes and impacts of industrial disputes,
Explain the role of trade unions in industrial setups,
Outline the crucial provisions of Wage Legislations concerning the Minimum Wages Act 1948, Payment of Wages Act 1936, and the Payment of Bonus Act 1965,
Summarise the important provisions listed in Social Security Legislations, about the Payment of Gratuity Act 1972, Employees Provident Fund Act 1952, and Employees State Insurance Act 1948.
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