What is Earth Science

Earth Science is one of the science disciplines that have Earth as its focus of study. Earth Science deals with geography, geology, palaeontology, seismology, and many other subjects. The focus might be on earth and its innumerable contents and processes but also includes the neighbours of the Earth and the nearby cosmos. The discipline is like a combination of geography, chemistry, environmental science and geology. It is packed with knowledge that is useful as a geologist, miner, mineralogist, marine geologist, seismologist, oceanographer, environmentalist, palaeontology and a lecturer. In India, there are a number of Earth Science courses available at the undergraduate, post-graduate and even doctoral levels. With the growing risks of environmental and earth-related issues such as global warming, pollution, earthquakes and floods, the prospects of Earth Science as a discipline has increased a lot. Other than that, mining companies, meteorological departments, disaster management departments, oil and natural gas companies, and many such private companies hire graduates of Earth Sciences, thus doubling its prospects by twofold.

Earth Science Course Highlights


Undergraduate Level

Post-graduate Level

Doctoral Program

Common Courses on Earth Sciences

B.Sc. in Earth Sciences

B.Tech. in Earth Sciences

M.Sc. in Earth Sciences

MTech. in Earth Sciences

PhD in Earth Sciences

Minimum Duration

3 Years

2 Years

3 Years

Maximum Duration

4 Years

2 Years

5 Years

Eligibility Criteria for Admission

Must have passed XII level with at least 50 percent marks

Must have graduated with at least 55 percent aggregate marks

Minimum 55 percent required in post-graduation level in the related discipline

Minimum Fees

Rs. 8,000

Rs. 12,000

Rs. 20,000

Maximum Fees

Rs. 1,70,000

Rs. 2,00,000

Rs. 2,20,000

Minimum Salary

Rs. 15,000 p.a.

Rs. 20,000 p.a.

Rs. 25,000 p.a.

Maximum Salary

No upper bound limit for salary

No upper bound limit for salary

No upper bound limit for salary

Career Choices

Geologist, Supervisor, Palaeontologist, Hydrogeologist, Environmentalist

Marine Geologist, Petroleum Geologist, Hydrogeologist, Mine Supervisor, Lecturer, Environmentalist

Professor, Researcher, Seismologist, Marine Geologist, Petroleum Geologist, Environmentalist, Hydrogeologist, Mine Supervisor


Eligibility Criteria (UG & PG) of Earth Science

Apart from the requirement of appearing for entrance exams conducted by various colleges/ institutes, students are also required to fulfil certain eligibility criteria to apply for Earth Sciences courses in various colleges and institutes across India.

Eligibility Criteria for UG Courses:

  • Students applying for Earth Sciences in UG course (B.Sc./ B.Tech.) must have completed 10+2 level with not less than 50 percent in science stream from a recognised board in India.
  • Students may also have to take entrance examinations such as  JEE MAIN, as instructed by the respective college/Institute.

Eligibility Criteria for PG Courses:

  • Students applying for M.Sc./ M.Tech courses in Earth Sciences must have passed UG level exam in the related field with not less than 55 percent from a recognised college/ university in India.
  • Students may have to appear for entrance exams like GATE.

Eligibility for Doctoral Program:

  • Students applying for PhD in Earth Sciences and any specialisation with the subject must score at least 55 percent in PG level exam in the related subject.
  • Students may also have to sit for entrance exams conducted by respective institutes and universities.

Earth Sciences Entrance Examination

Entrance examinations are held by institutions offering courses related to Earth Sciences across India. These entrance exams are conducted to test the skills and knowledge of students with respect to the course. In order to sit for these entrance exams, students must have at least 45-55 percent in the qualifying exam (10+2 or graduation exam or PG exam). Some of the most common Earth Sciences entrance tests are –

1. Joint Entrance Examination Main (JEE Main): JEE Main is the biggest national level exam conducted for various engineering courses at UG level across India. The score of this entrance test is accepted in all IITs, NITs, and CFTIs. Many IITs offer B.Sc./ M.Sc. in Earth Science.

2. Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE): GATE is the most important exam for engineering students seeking admission in PG courses offered by India’s best colleges. Every year as many as 8 – 10 Lakh students sit for the exam.

3. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS) Entrance Test: Indian Institute of Remote Sensing is one of the top institutes offering M.Sc. courses in Earth Science and related subjects.

4. Manipal Entrance Test (MET)This is conducted by the Manipal University for students seeking admission into the Manipal Institute of Technology. This is written for various B.Tech. and M.Tech. courses, including Earth Science.

5. Indian Institute of Science Education & Research (IISER), Bhopal Aptitude Test: IISER Bhopal is one of the most reputed institutes in India. It conducts IISER Aptitude test for taking students in various B.Sc., and M.Sc. courses include Earth Sciences.

Scope of Earth Science in India and Abroad

Earth Sciences is an interdisciplinary subject including topics from geography, geology, environmental science, and even chemistry. The subject, therefore, offers specialisation in many fields. This broadens the prospects of an Earth Sciences course. If one is studying B.Sc. in Earth Science, one can opt for M.Sc.  in Seismology and get recruited in Meteorological Departments of India. The course also covers topics like minerals, rocks, natural gas, and fuels which are the cores of the Energy Sector of India and are thus, in high demand. Recruitments for supervisors of mines and industries, hydrogeologists and petroleum geologists for various oil and gas companies – private and public – are increasing as the demands of natural resources are getting higher day by day. The overall scope of the subject is very wide, and students will not only have great career opportunities, but will also learn a great deal about our one and only abode – the Earth – which will never lose its relevance whatsoever.

Course Fees Earth Science

Minimum Fees Maximum Fees
Private Government Private Government
3.24 Lakhs
B.Sc.(Hons) in Earth Science at Amity University, Gurugram
8.31 Lakhs
BS in Earth Science at Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
3.24 Lakhs
B.Sc.(Hons) in Earth Science at Amity University, Gurugram
8.31 Lakhs
BS in Earth Science at Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
24.12 K
M.Sc. in Earth Science at Global Open University, Dimapur
13.60 K
M.Sc. in Earth Science at Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta
30.00 K
M.A. in Earth Science at Shri Jagdishprasad Jhabarmal Tibrewala University, Jhunjhunu
8.25 Lakhs
B.E /B.Tech in Earth Science at Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
1.81 Lakhs
Ph.D in Earth Science at Shri Jagdishprasad Jhabarmal Tibrewala University, Jhunjhunu
52.07 K
Ph.D in Earth Science at University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad
1.81 Lakhs
Ph.D in Earth Science at Shri Jagdishprasad Jhabarmal Tibrewala University, Jhunjhunu
1.76 Lakhs
Ph.D in Earth Science at Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Pune

Course Subjects

  • Geology
  • Geochemistry
  • Palaeontology
  • Ore Geology
  • Geomorphology
  • Geotechnical Engineering
  • Sedimentology
  • Seismology
  • Marine Geology
  • Economic Geology
  • Drilling Engineering
  • Environmental Studies
  • Hydrogeology
  • Geo-Mechanics
  • Statistical Methods of Geosciences

Careers in Earth Science

Earth Sciences is a very relevant and broad discipline covering topics from geography, geology, meteorology, environmental studies, chemistry, physics, astronomy, petroleum geology, mineralogy, hydrogeology and geo science offering many specialisations for further research and for career opportunities as well. Career options available include mining engineer, seismologist, petroleum engineer, marine geologist, geo scientist, geo science engineer, survey geologist, hydrogeologist, environmentalist and even a lecturer.

Job Profiles and Top Recruiters

Job Profiles

Being a course that involves several subjects, finding a job that is tailored to the interests is not hard.  A graduate of Earth Sciences can branch out into a number of fields and thus has innumerable job opportunities available to him. Listed below are some of the most coveted jobs in the field -


Job Profile

Job Description



As a seismologist, one has to work in collecting and interpreting seismic data for meteorological departments and various oil and mining companies.


Mining Engineer

As a mining engineer, one has to work in mining companies for safe extraction of minerals, oils, and other resources.


Survey Geologist

As a survey geologist, one has to conduct geological surveys and collect data on behalf of the state and central government.



As a hydrogeologist, one will have to analyse and interpret data on water systems and build a more efficient groundwater model.


Geo-Science Engineer

As a geoscience engineer, one has to conduct searches for natural resources, study processes and aspects of earth and conduct studies on them.


Top Recruiters

There is a need for Earth Sciences graduates in almost every field today. With the rapid depletion of fossil fuels, such graduates with immense knowledge on the Earth are in high demand. Listed below are some of the highest paying recruiters for graduates of Earth Sciences. 

1. Mineral Exploration Corporation Ltd.

2. Reliance Petroleum

3. Geological Survey of India

4. Indian Space Research Organization

5. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation

6.  National Mineral Development Corporation

7.  Environmental Consulting Firms

8. Engineering Firms

9. Academic Institutions

10. Research Centres

Required Skillset for Earth Science

To excel in the field of Earth Sciences, a keen interest of the subject and its various faucets is the only way. With hard work and dedication, success in the field is certain. Apart from this, in order to successfully navigate through the curriculum of the course and perform their best in careers of the course, listed below are some skills that can easily be picked up along the way -

  • Knowledge relating to Science and The Earth: Students must have a great deal of knowledge about geography and the Earth with a good application of science, especially in the chemistry of everyday processes of the Earth. This will definitely be a plus point.

  • Practical Skills: Students must have great lab skills to excel in experiments and any other practical work. Practical skills will be especially useful for conducting on-site research like in mining, hydrogeology, and other work.

  • Research Oriented: Students must be research-oriented to find solutions to unsolved problems and conduct new research to prove points and inferences.

  • Statistical Mind: Statistical skills to draw and analyse large numerical data and graphs and deduce conclusions from them is an especially important asset for Earth Sciences students.

  • Computer Skills: Students must know how to operate computer programs such as GIS and Remote Sensing.

  • Communication Skills: Verbal skills of students will help them in clearing viva, interviews, or discussing any problem in detail.

Course Curriculum for Earth Science

Earth Sciences is interdisciplinary, and therefore, its curriculum consists of topics from subjects such as geology, chemistry, geography, environmental science. The focus of the study is Earth and its various aspects like the atmosphere and processes such as the formation of fuels, global warming and earthquakes.

Questions related to Earth Science

Showing 15 out of 15 Questions

what is the syllabus of Life science and the Earth science

Ambika Ashok 25th Sep, 2020

Hello Priyanshi,

Since you have not mentioned with respect to any particular college or university syllabus I am going to list out the syllabus on a general basis according to CSIR NET .


The Earth and the Solar System

Earth Materials, Surface Features and Processes

Interior of the Earth, Deformation and Tectonics

Oceans and Atmosphere

Environmental Earth Sciences


Physical Geography



Ocean Sciences

There are further sub-topics under each. Also there might be slight variations or addition to these main topics list based on the university or college you opt for. Same applies for life science topics too.

LIFE SCIENCE:(Major areas)

Molecules and their Interaction Relevant to Biology

Cellular Organization

Fundamental Processes

Cell Communication and Cell Signaling

Developmental Biology

System Physiology – Plant

System Physiology – Animal

Inheritance Biology

Diversity of  Life Forms

Ecological Principles

Evolution and Behavior

Applied Biology

Methods in Biology

Hope this helps


can i get iit gowhati in spot round? my score 391, civil,obc-ncl .. i applied for earth science and water resource engineering

Rishu Gupta 24th Aug, 2020

Hi Kalyan Karna,

As per your score and previous year cutoff, the colleges you get are:-

IIT Guwahati-- Water Resources Engineering and Management. Last year closing cutoff score is 360 for OBC-NCL.

IIT Guwahati-- Earth System Science and Engineering. Last year closing cutoff score is 304 for OBC-NCL.

To know more about your chances of getting other colleges check out the PSU/college predictor link below:



Prof. Rao : What is Earth Science, Can you elaborate it?

Earth Science means to study the atmosphere right from earth to space. Last week the Government of India has opened ISRO for private partnership so some of the students who want to become Entrepreneurs they can think of. For example now small satellite is becoming a great demand all over the world, Some students who joined in their college or university could plan to develop small satellite, Prove their capabilities, Technologies then they can become Entrepreneurs.

Prof. D. Narayana Rao

(Pro Vice Chancellor, SRM University-AP)


How to get seat in iisc Blr in earth science stream,how much percentile we get in mains or in advance ..pls give me full details

Akram Khan 14th May, 2020


There are three channels through which one can get admission to Bs-MS and B.S programs in IISC.

  1. Kishore Vaigyanik Protsahan Yojana ( KVPY ) channel
  2. Joint Entrance Examination ( JEE-Advanced ) of the Indian Institutes of Technology
  3. State and Central Boards Channel ( SCB )

Through any of the above channel you can get a seat in IISC.

The minimum percentage of marks required in jee mains and jee advance to apply for undergraduate programs at IISER are -

IIT-JEE (Main): 60% (GN), 54% (OBC-NCL), 30% (SC/ST/PH)

IIT-JEE (Advanced): 60% (GN), 54% (OBC-NCL), 30% (SC/ST/PH)

Hope it helps.


can mpc student is eligible for Earth science course

priyaankasarkar Student Expert 27th Apr, 2020
Earth Sciences are usually in the fields of Geology, Geography, study of Earth, Oceanography, etc. Now the eligibility to study these courses at Graduation level is that you should have completed your 12th in science stream with Physics, Chemistry, Biology/Biotechnology/ Mathematics. So if you are studying or completed your Intermediate in MPC, you are eligible to study courses in Earth Sciences.

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