What is Geography

When it comes to learning each subject separately, it will be easy but gets tough as we go into the higher levels. However, overall, it’s a good learning experience. One such subject is Geography, where we learn about the types of landforms, physical structures of the Earth, space and so on. By learning this course, you can know how much our country has in terms of its resources, landforms and geographical location.

You can also learn about the Earth and its atmosphere as well as how human beings are affecting them. One can also learn about the phenomena related to the formation of our planet earth and other planets. When you take up geography as a graduation course, you will be able to know about all these aspects in detail and will also come to learn about disaster management. Among all the other subjects, Geography is the easiest subject you can learn and get placed in top positions at the same time.

There are four levels of learning in this course, and they are as follows:

  • Bachelor’s in Geography/ B.Sc. Geography
  • Master’s in Geography/Msc Geography
  • M.Phil in Geography
  • Doctorate in geography

Eligibility Criteria (UG & PG) of Geography

The eligibility criterion for geography is similar to other courses, and aspiring candidates need to qualify the criteria to pursue the course.

For Undergraduate

  • Students who wish to take up the Geography Undergraduate Program have to pass the 10+2 from a recognised board.

  •  He/she must also pass the board exam with a good percentile, preferably in Humanities in Class 12th.

  • The percentile depends upon the university/ college. But the minimum percentile is 45-55 percent.

  •  For taking up B.Sc. in Geography, you will have to qualify the UGC net exam or All India Entrance exams.

For Postgraduate Courses

  • Candidates who wish to pursue Post graduation in Geography must have a degree in the subject from a well-recognised university.

  •  He/she has to have the bare minimum required percentile in the subject that a university or college expects them to have.

  • For taking up M. Sc. in Geography, one has to qualify the UGC NET or the All India Entrance Exam.

Entrance exams for Geography Course

For applying for the undergraduate course of geography, the aspiring candidate has to write entrance exams as per the preference of each university. There are certain exams you need to qualify for pursuing the course if you are planning to be a lecturer which is also a career possibility. They are:

  •  UGC NET - This exam is conducted twice a year for candidates who are qualified for assistant professor and for junior research fellowship. And those who get qualified for the same can get geography graduation and post-graduation, and you can get placed in top colleges as lecturers and professors.

  • All India Entrance exam - The All India Entrance exam is conducted for geography if you wish to pursue the M.Sc. in Geography.

Scope of Geography in India and Abroad

Aspiring candidates who wish to have a prospective career in their life can take up this course, and they have huge opportunities in the field. The course has a wide scope when it comes to making a career in the field. You can have a successful career in the field by pursuing this course. After completing the course in Geography, you can get placed as a cartographer. By completing your masters in Geography, you can become a lecturer or an assistant professor in Geography. Thus, there are lots of career opportunities for candidates who aspire to be in a good prospective career in the course. Apart from the good sum of salary, the course gives you hands-on experience in knowing about the geography of the country and its political influence over the development of the country.

Course Fees Geography

Minimum Fees Maximum Fees
Private Government Private Government
2.33 K
B.A.(Hons) in Geography at RBS College, Teyai
1.30 K
B.Sc. in Geography at Bharathi Women's College, Chennai
3.78 Lakhs
B.Sc.(Hons) in Geography at Amity University, Noida
1.49 Lakhs
Dual Degree in Geography at Cluster University of Srinagar, Srinagar
1.00 K
M.A. in Geography at Pandit SN Shukla University, Shahdol
M.Sc. in Geography at Government Arts College, Salem
2.13 Lakhs
M.A. in Geography at GD Goenka University, Gurgaon
1.40 Lakhs
M.Phil. in Geography at Shyam University, Dausa
85.00 K
Ph.D in Geography at Career Point Law College, Kota
7.00 K
Ph.D in Geography at Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi
12.90 Lakhs
Ph.D in Geography at NIILM University, Kaithal
3.00 Lakhs
Ph.D in Geography at Institute of Advanced Studies in Education, Churu
Data not available
12.40 K
M.Sc. in Geography at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
Data not available
12.40 K
M.Sc. in Geography at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi

Course Subjects

In a graduation and post-graduation course of any subject, several other subjects that are connected will be present. These are some of the core subjects that come under Geography:

For an Undergraduate Course (BA Geography) -

  • Geography of India
  • Maps and Scales
  • Physical Geography I
  • Representation of Physical Features
  • Physical Geography II
  • Representation of climate data
  • Human Geography
  • Maps Projection
  • Economic Geography
  • Distribution of Maps and Diagrams
  • Introduction of Remote sensing hours, GIS and Quantitative methods

For a B. Sc. in Geography - 

  • Geography of India I
  • Geomorphology
  • Cartographic techniques
  • Maps and scales
  • Physical Geography I
  • Human Geography I
  • Thematic cartography
  • Representation of Physical Features
  • Physical Geography II
  • Representation of Climate Data
  • Climatology
  • Statistical Methods in Geography
  • Geography of India II
  • Maps Protections
  • Environmental Geography
  • Economic Geography
  • Field Work and Research Methodology
  • Regional Planning and Development
  • Distribution Maps and Diagrams
  • Remote Sensing and GIS
  • Prologue to Remote Sensing and Field Survey Report
  • Evolution of Geographical Thoughts
  • Disaster Management

For an MA in Geography-

  • Geomorphology
  • Climatology and Soil Geography
  • Nature of Geography
  • Economic Geography
  • Quantitative Techniques and Digital Data Processing
  • Geohydrology and Oceanography
  • Biogeography
  • Historical and Political Geography
  • Geographical Thought
  • Cartographic Techniques and Map Projection
  • Thematic mapping and Geographical Information System.

Careers in Geography

The course of Geography has lots of job opportunities and once you complete your post-graduation in the subject, you can either pursue M. Phil. Or a Doctorate in Geography and become a professor in a reputed college or university. You can also complete 2 years of Master of Arts and become a Geographer. Hence, the course of geography has good job opportunities, and once you complete the course, you will be employed in a top place with a salary of around Rs. 2 lakh to Rs. 8 lakhs on an average.

Job Profiles and Top Recruiters

In our country, there are a lot of placements and recruiters who help in recruiting talented persons in their company. Geography has many job profiles which give the aspiring students the opportunity to work in the best government agencies and companies. These are the job profiles for Geography:


Job profile

Job description



A cartographer’s job involves the development of maps that have been designed as per the information taken from various charts, diagrams, conventional maps, and spreadsheets.


Coastal zone manager

The coastal zone manager holds the responsibility of managing, protecting as well as conserving the coastal areas and the available resources. They are also the ones that take major management decisions for the coastal areas.


Land Use Analyst

A Land Analyst designs and organises the plans that are made for the land use keeping in mind the basic environmental, economic, and population factor in that area.


Landscape Architect

The Landscape Architects are the ones that meet the clients and the engineers to build a design with regard to the specification, costs and the construction site situation and circumstances.


Development Surveyor

A Development Surveyor is the person that holds the responsibility of supervising the development activities that take place on empty plots to ensure that the plans comply with the legal, financial and social factors.


Zoning Investigator

The zoning investigator is the person that has to take the complaints about the zoning and takes required actions to resolve the problems.


Agriculture Specialist

Agriculture specialists often specialise in a specific area, for example, animal science.



A geographer studies the Earth and its land, features and inhabitants.



Demographer is a social scientist who uses statistical methods to study the size, distribution and structure of human populations.


Forest Manager

A Forest Manager is responsible for managing forests and woodlands while overseeing activities such as timber production, conservation and recreation.


Top recruiters

There are lots of recruiters in the field of Geography. Thus, candidates have vast job opportunities in good positions. These are some of the top recruiters:

  • ISRO
  • NRSC
  • Agriculture research
  • GIS and Remote sensing
  • Colleges and Universities
  • Environmental protecting agencies
  • Gas exploration company
  • Government research institutes
  • Mining Industries
  • NGO’s

Required Skillset for Geography

For every course, there need to be certain skills required for a candidate to qualify for taking up Geography as a profession. These are some of the skills required for the candidate:

  • Analytical Skills – He/she needs to know how to analyse the information regarding the details of spatial data and other data related to the geography of the location.

  • Communication Skills – Communication is another skill required for a person who wishes to pursue the course. One should be able to communicate the necessary details of spatial data and data related to the landforms of the country.

  • Computer Skills – This is especially needed when you need to record the data related to seismic movements.

  • Critical Thinking – He/she should be able to analyse the subject in detail and that too, in a sceptical and unbiased way.

  • Writing Skills – He/she should be able to write down the details of the essential data regarding the subject.

Course Curriculum for Geography

For any subject, the curriculum is especially important. The aspiring candidate will be benefited with the help of a well- defined curriculum. The curriculum will give you hands-on experience in the field. The curriculum also helps in also knowing the relevant discoveries and findings in the field. Students will also be able to learn the broader aspect of the subject in detail with examples and figures.

Questions related to Geography

Showing 363 out of 363 Questions

I have Biology and Geography together in my 12th grade. what are the best options to study?

Raychel 20th Oct, 2020

Dear Applicant,

Hope you are doing well.

With biology you can get into any medical fields you want, but you will first have to answer an entrance exam called neet. After that based on ur merit you can choose a career in medicine or medical. Like mbbs or being a doctor nurse etc but you will have to study alot.

Even you can do a bachelor's degree ie. Specialization. So you see the options are widely spread.

With Geography, the career options include like,teacher/lecturer/professor.

Work in some Researcher in organisations, Cartographers, Environmental Consultant, Urban Planner, Tourism Officer, GIS Specialist, Demographer, Hydrologist.

But u need to study more ie. Advanced level geography.

1 thing to note many students appear for Graduation in geography but barely find work since there are other better specialization available.

Since you mentioned biology I'm assuming you are doing science in your 12th class. You can even choose a career in chemistry or physics. Geography can be a bit low when it comes to earning unless you are lucky enough to get a high payed job.

Hope this helps.


What are the career options if I have geography and what are the best colleges for that?

Syed Yasir 20th Oct, 2020

Hello Samaita.

Choosing Geography as a career option is a smart move in today's time. Being a vast and rapidly growing field, it has and is coming up with a lot of future job opportunities.

If you go for higher studies in this field you can do a bachelor's degree in Geography. The eligibility criteria for it is that you must have completed you 10+2 in arts or science and then go on with geography as a course.

Usually the cut off varies for different institutions but roughly it is above 85% and there are no entrance exams for this. Candidates are selected on the basis of marks obtained in 12th standard. The usual course duration is 3 years.

The options in the undergraduate program are:

  • B.Sc. Geography
  • B.Sc.(Hons) Geography
  • B.A. Geography
  • B.A.(Hons) Geography
  • Integrated B.Sc+M.Sc Geography

The career options after completion of the course are:

  • Climatologist
  • Geography teacher
  • Research associate in an environment related project
  • Urban planners
  • Cartographers
  • Meteorologist
  • Water conservation officer
  • Soil conservationist
  • Pollution analyst
  • Travel and Tourism Planner and advisor

Colleges for this course, to name a few, are :

  • Shaheed Bhagat Singh College, Delhi
  • Jadhavpur University, Kolkata
  • Presidency University, Kolkata
  • Aligarh Muslim University
  • Central University of Karnataka
  • Dayal Singh College, Delhi
  • Nalanda Open University
  • Ashutosh College, Kolkata
  • Savitribai Phule Pune University
  • Madras Christian College
  • University of Raajasthan
  • University of MUmbai. Kalina
  • MS University, Baroda

I hope my points have answered your question.


What are the best career options if I have Geography, Chemistry, Biology and Nutrition as my subjects in class 12th?

Aman Ghatiya 20th Oct, 2020

Samaita Banerjee
, If you have Geography, Chemistry, Biology and Nutrition as your subjects in class 12th and want to know about career options then from some research on internet I found that bsc nursing is one of the best options because that all mentioned subjects are in bsc nursing.

Hope it will be helpful for you :)


which are the best University in North-eastern state to study Geography Post Graduation?

Sahana Hegde 21st Oct, 2020

Hello Aspirant,

geography is a wonderful subject to continue and there are a lot of options for future studies.

some of them are : 1. Martin Luther christian university which offers one MA in geography course , place: Shillong.

2. North eastern university place: shillong.

3. CMJ university place: Meghalaya.

4. William Carey university  place: shillong

These are some of the colleges offering courses in geography

Hope this helps.

ping us below for more queries.


Good Luck:)

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