What is Geology

Geology teaches the students about the Earth and its science. The solid and liquid matter that comprises the Earth’s surface, the landforms, processes taking place in Earth’s crust, constituents, understanding the working of the Earth’s system, and history is studied in this specialisation.

Geology is a specialisation of science which deals with physical components of Earth, various processes like landslides, floods, and volcanic eruptions among others. It studies the development of Earth and how it evolved over 4.4 billion years. Geology students are scientists who study how the atmosphere, oceans and continents have originated. This information helps the geologists understand climate changes and its consequences and why this happens.

They also deal with the construction of bridges, buildings, roads, and railway tracks by assessing the areas for their suitability for construction. They search for the areas which are rich in natural resources.

Eligibility Criteria (UG & PG) of Geology

Each college has its eligibility criteria which the students need to fulfil. Upon failing to fulfil them, their admission can be cancelled. Each degree course has its eligibility list.

For Diploma

For Bachelor

  • The students must have secured at least 55% marks in 10+2 class with their main subjects as Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics.

For Masters

  • The students should have secured at least 55% marks during their B.Sc. examination. 

Geology Entrance Exams

The colleges and universities either conduct their entrance exams or give admission based on a national level exam. Some colleges even give admission based on merit(10+2 marks). Some of the entrance examinations are written below for each degree course –

For Bachelor

  • CG PET (Chhattisgarh Pre-Engineering Test)- This is an offline institute level entrance exam conducted in English and Hindi. This paper would comprise of 200 objective type questions. It grants admission for the UG and PG courses.

  • IISER IAT (Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research Aptitude Test)- It is an online national level entrance exam. It is 3 hours long and consists of 60 objective type questions from Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics. It grants admission for the UG courses.

  • OUAT (Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology Entrance Exam)- This offline entrance exam is conducted to grant admission for the UG, PG and doctoral courses. The paper consists of 200 objective type questions.

For Master

  • MRNAT (Manav Rachna National Aptitude Test)- This online entrance exam is conducted once a year in English. It is 90 minutes long, with no negative marking in the paper. This exam grants admission for the PG and doctoral courses. 

Scope of Geology in India and Abroad

Why would a student want to pursue a geology course without knowing its scope? So here are the answers to these questions.

Geology has in itself a lot of job opportunities for the students, it’s a fun course, and the student’s life would become more exciting after pursuing this course. Firstly, it has job opportunities in the private as well as the public sector. The students can become geologists, oceanographers, seismologists, and palaeontologists.

Secondly, geology course offer a decent amount of salary to the students, neither too less nor too much. In the start, as the students would enter as freshers, their salary would range from Rs. 4-5 lakhs p.a. (approx.) but after they gain experience, their salary may go up to Rs. 18 lakhs p.a. (approx.). Students can even have various other educational lines open for them after they do their bachelors. The students can go for masters and doctorate after they complete their bachelors’ degree. A lot of top recruiting companies come to recruit these people.

Course Fees Geology

Minimum Fees Maximum Fees
Private Government Private Government
2.90 K
B.Sc. in Geology at Christ College, Irinjalakuda
1.32 K
B.Sc.(Hons) in Geology at Government General Degree College, Gopiballavpur II
3.78 Lakhs
B.Sc. in Geology at Manav Rachna International Institute of Research and Studies, Faridabad
10.58 Lakhs
Dual Degree in Geology at Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
4.40 K
M.Phil. in Geology at DBF Dayanand College of Arts and Science, Solapur
M.Sc. in Geology at Government Arts College, Salem
2.52 Lakhs
M.Sc. in Geology at Manav Rachna International Institute of Research and Studies, Faridabad
1.20 Lakhs
M.Sc. in Geology at University of Lucknow, Lucknow
21.00 K
Ph.D in Geology at Dnyanopasak Shikshan Mandal's College of Arts, Commerce and Science, Parbhani
4.80 K
Ph.D in Geology at Panjab University, Chandigarh
21.00 K
Ph.D in Geology at Dnyanopasak Shikshan Mandal's College of Arts, Commerce and Science, Parbhani
1.82 Lakhs
Ph.D in Geology at National Institute of Technology Hamirpur
Data not available
17.00 K
M.Sc. in Geology at Bangalore University, Bangalore
Data not available
17.00 K
M.Sc. in Geology at Bangalore University, Bangalore

Course Subjects

Each college offers different subjects for each degree course of geology. Some of the subjects have been mentioned below –

For Bachelors

  • Structural Geology

  • Physical geology and Geomorphology

  • Mineralogy

  • Crystallography and Mineral Optics

  • Stratigraphy

  • Palaeontology

  • Petrology

  • Exploration Geology and Remote Sensing

  • Economic Geology

  • Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology

  • Engineering Geology and Mining Geology

For Masters

  • Sedimentary Petrology

  • Metamorphic Petrology

  • Igneous Petrology

  • Mineralogy, Optics and Crystallography

  • Economic Geology

  • Geochemistry

  • Geophysics and Exploration Methods

  • Hydrogeology

  • Environmental Geology

  • Natural Resource Management

  • Geo-techniques and Engineering Geology

  • Dissertation

For Doctorate

  • Literature Review

  • Geological Survey

  • Remote Sensing

  • Sampling

  • Microscopy

  • Geochemical Analysis

  • Geo-scientific Writing

Careers in Geology

The Geology course offers so many options for studying the Earth ahead. These may be environmental protection, oil exploration, mineral exploration, resource management, and so many more. The lives of these geologists will become very exciting after the course. They can wish to become geographers, geologists, oceanographers, and meteorologists. The geology graduate students can also work in universities, government companies and NGOs. They can work both on-field as well as off-field.

They play a major role in finding that land which has vast reserves of natural resources and therefore their demand is increasing in both the private and public sectors of the society.

Job Profiles and Top Recruiters

Job Profiles Offered to Geology graduates

Since geology course has a lot of job opportunities for the students, here are some of the job profiles the students would love to work as –

Job Profile

Job Description

Petroleum Geologists

Petroleum Geologists determine the location and amount of combustible fuel present in the sediments of the land or ocean. They have to understand how the fuel originated, the amount of fuel present in the reservoir and its maturation stage. They use a variety of tools like geochemical analysis, sonar systems to discover such reservoirs and map them. They can also work with oil extraction companies in the mechanism of extraction of oil.


A Hydrologists studies the relationship between soil and rock, how rainfall affects them. They use computer modelling its applications in finding the relationship. They apply statistical and hydrological techniques to analyse the data collected. They inform about the impact of environmental changes on the oceans and sea beds. They do projects on water regulation and its management. They figure out how floods have originated and what can be done to manage them.

Marine Geologist

A Marine Geologist analyses the data and information to find out the facts, principles and reasons behind the collected data. They plan surveys on the geological, geochemical and geophysical like collection, and processing these data. They study the maps, diagrams, charts and report which sites have mineral resources and are safe to extract natural resources.


A Geologist has to plan the geological processes, gather and analyse the geological data collection and study the composition of the Earth’s crust and its various minerals. A Geologist sets up research teams who would help them in this project. They write reports on their findings and conduct quality control tests for the suitability of the material. They ensure the projects developed are environmentally friendly and meet the other regulations.


A Palaeontologist is concerned with the study of fossil remains in the land of extinct species of plants and animals. They research the life forms which existed thousands if not millions of years ago and study how life has evolved of plants and animals. They learn how to preserve these fossils to store them at museums or research institutes.

Geology Top Recruiters

To get recruited in the government sector, the students need to appear for the UPSC exam (Union Public Service Examination). This will qualify them to secure recruitment in government agencies like –

  • GSI – Geological Survey of India

  • CGWB – Central Groundwater Board

  • ONGC – Oil & Natural Gas Corporation

  • Coal India Limited

  • Hindustan Zinc Limited

  • MECL – Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited

  • MMTC – Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation

  • IBM – Indian Bureau of Mines

  • ISRO – Indian Space Research Organization

  • BPCL – Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited

Average Salary

Salary is what every student is concerned with after studying so much. They should be paid appropriately after their education. Here are some of the average salaries for the job profiles after completing geology course.

Job Profile

Average Salary

Petroleum Geologists

Rs. 8-9 lakhs p.a. (approx.)


Rs. 5-6 lakhs p.a. (approx.)

Marine Geologist

Rs. 7-8 lakhs p.a. (approx.)


Rs. 5-6 lakhs p.a. (approx.)


Rs. 5-6 lakhs p.a. (approx.)

My Supervisors

Rs. 2-3 lakhs p.a. (approx.)

Required Skillset for Geology

The students graduating from the field of geology require the following skills set. Being professional and always being enthusiastic about their work.

  • Observation – They should have good observation skills. They should observe the land accurately and tell whether it contains natural resources or not. The samples collected and map ping areas should be well under the observation of the geologists.

  • Analysis – Having good analysing skills is one advantage of geologists. They should be able to analyse the sample collected correctly and accurately.

  • Teamwork – Good team management and team working skills should be inculcated. When there is a discussion among the team, you should be strong enough to put forth your point.

  • Instruments – The study of the gathered substances takes a lot of time when done manually. So they should be skilled enough to work with complicated instruments for getting analysis done faster and accurately.

Course Curriculum for Geology

The students will learn the composition of the Earth and its properties, the various geological processes going on inside the Earth’s crust, plate tectonics, and metamorphism, the history of how the Earth evolved is also taught to them, and more.

Geomorphology will teach them the landform developments and its various processes like fluvial erosion, and glacial erosion. Learn how to construct topographical maps with GPS and navigation. They also learn about the various minerals present in the Earth’s crust.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Question: Which are the courses available for the students for geology?

Answer :

The different courses available for the students are –

  • Diploma of Associateship in Applied Geology

  • Bachelor of Science in Geology

  • Master of Science in Applied Geology and Geoinformatics

  • Master of Philosophy in Applied Geology

  • Doctor of Philosophy in Geological Sciences 

Question: What is the duration and fees for each course?

Answer :

The table below gives the duration and fees for each course –





1 year

Up to Rs. 50000


3 years

Rs. 10000 – Rs. 1 lakh p.a. (approx.)


2 years

Rs. 30000 – Rs. 1 lakh p.a. (approx.)


3 years

Rs. 1 lakh – Rs. 2 lakhs p.a. (approx.)

Question: Which are some popular colleges to study geology?

Answer :

The popular colleges of geology are –

  • IIT Kharagpur

  • NIT Raipur

  • Banaras Hindu University

  • Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda

  • Indira Gandhi National Open University

  • Fergusson College

  • Shri Guru Ram Rai University

  • Parul University

  • A.P. Residential Degree College

  • Pravabati College

Question: What would be the starting salary of the geology freshers?

Answer :

Since the students will be new to the course, a less amount of starting salary would be given, but it will increase eventually after they get a hand on experience and promotion along with it. The starting salary would be Rs. 15,000 to Rs. 25,000 per month.

Question: Which are the books the students can refer to for the geology course?

Answer :

Some of the books which would help the students during their course of time are –

  • Igneous Petrology – J.D. Winter

  • Structural Geology – SK Ghosh

  • Geology of Petroleum – Arville Irving Levorsen

  • Exploring Geology – Reynolds

  • Essentials of Geology – Fredrick K. Lutgens

  • Foundations of Earth Science – Fredrick K. Lutgens

  • Sedimentary Petrology – S.M. Sengupta

  • Elements of Geology – S.M. Mathur

  • Geochemistry – Mason and Moore 

Questions related to Geology

Showing 743 out of 743 Questions

which college is best for geology honours from kolkata

Bhavesh gupta 7th Jun, 2021

Hi Aspirant,

Hope you are doing great as per the question asked by you there are many good colleges in kolkata inn kolkata for geology hons. some of which are:

1. Asutosh College, Kolkata

2. University College of Science, Technology and Agriculture, Kolkata

3. Jogamaya Devi College, Kolkata

You can visit the link given below and search the required:


Hope you found this answer useful.Stay motivated stay positive.

All the best!


can anyone tell me Bsc Geology colleges in maharashtra?

aditya 22nd May, 2021

Hello Aspirant

I hope you are doing good . With reference to your query , I would like to know you that their are many colleges in maharashtra which offer bsc geology course. Some of them are here in the following:-

1. Solapur University

2. Fergusson college pune

3. St Xaviers college, Mumbai.

4. Poona college of Arts Science and Commerce

5. Gulamnabi Azhad Arts. Akola

6. Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University. Nagpur.

Hope you found this answer helpful. Good luck for your future


Cucet 2021 msc geology syllabys

anirudha vats 18th May, 2021


CUCET stands for Central University Common Entrance Test and the exam is conducted for admission into different courses offered by the Central Universities.

Below is the link from  where you can download the syllabus for MSC Geology.


The exam consists of questions from General awareness, aptitude and reasoning (comprising of 25% of the paper) and the subject related questions ( comprising of rest 75%)

Hope that helps.

Thank you.


Top university for MSc geology in Karnataka

Devraj Student Expert 14th May, 2021


Some of the top university offering  msc geology in karnataka are the following

Manipal Institute of Technology

Bangalore University

University of Mysore

Central University of Karnataka

Karnataka University

Manorama College of computer Application

Gulbarga University

Hope this information will help you


please tell me.. can i do Msc Geology after Bsc forensic science or any Bsc degree? please tell me Im very confused after that I doesnt have geology related subject at graduation can i do Msc geology

Vundela Vidya Sree Student Expert 8th May, 2021

Dear student,

You have many options after completion of B.Sc undergraduation course. Yes you can go for M.Sc Geology after completion of any graduation with minimum 50 percentage.

List of best M.Sc Courses you can do after B.Sc Forensic Science.

  • M.Sc Forensic Biology
  • M.Sc Forensic Science
  • M.Sc Forensic Chemistry
  • M.Sc Criminology
  • M.Sc Forensic ballistics
  • M.Sc Forensic Serology
  • M.Sc Forensic Psychology
  • M.Sc Forensic Toxicology
  • M.Sc Geography
  • M.Sc Biology
  • M.Sc Mental Healthcare

Hope this helps.

Best of Luck!!

The question have been saved in answer later, you can access it from your profile anytime. Access now

Explore Science colleges in other popular locations

Download the Careers360 App on your Android phone

Regular exam updates, QnA, Predictors, College Applications & E-books now on your Mobile

Careers360 App
  • 150M+ Students
  • 24,000+ Colleges
  • 500+ Exams
  • 1500+ E-books
  • Economic Times
  • Financial Express
  • Firstpost
  • Livemint