In order to become a Government Teacher, you should have the acquired the minimum educational qualification required for the level you intend to Teach (PRT, TGT, PGT Pre-Primary Teacher) and should qualify the Central Teacher Eligibility Test/ State Teacher Eligibility Test (CTET/TET).The List of Courses to become a Government Teacher in India are Bachelor of Education (B.Ed),Elementary Teacher Education Program, Diploma in Education (D.Ed.),Bachelor of Elementary Education (B.EI.Ed.), Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) (Open and Distance Learning System), Master of Education Program (M.Ed.),Master of Education Program (M.Ed.) (Part Time) and Master of Education Program (M.Ed.).
After you complete these courses and given the required exam, you can be placed in different schools/colleges accordingly.
Each of these have different eligibility criteria to meet. You can know more these courses by visiting https://university.careers360.com/articles/3667-Career-in-Teaching
Hope this helps!