L.L.D (Doctor of Law) - Course, Admissions, Eligibility, Syllabus
What is L.L.D (Doctor of Law)?
L.L.D or doctor of law is a specialised law degree which is a three years programme. Candidates can complete this course in a maximum duration of six years and L.L.D programmes include course work. To pursue this course candidates must have completed their LLM/PhD in law from a recognised university. Apart from these some colleges also mention that candidates should have some teaching or academic experience if they want to pursue an L.L.D course. L.L.D is the highest level of degree in law helping candidates to gain expertise in this field.
The examination for this degree is held semester wise. Candidates can get into these courses after successfully completing the master's degree in law. Numerous institutes follow various procedures to select candidates in respective law colleges through merit obtained in LLM or entrance exams or interviews in case of some colleges. The average course fee ranges from anywhere between Rs. 5000 to Rs. 5 lakhs depending upon location and ranking of the respective law colleges.
Types of L.L.D (Doctor of Law)
L.L.D or doctor of law is a postgraduate degree offered by various institutions. This is the highest level of degree available in law courses.
L.L.D (Doctor of Law) Eligibility
The eligibility criteria for L.L.D courses differ from college to college. Some colleges state that candidates can secure a position in the college if they have completed a PhD in law from a recognised university. Candidates can study in a university which could be in India or abroad but must have relevant experience in the field of law. Few colleges also specify candidates to have a teaching experience of five to ten years in order to get a position for L.L.D courses in these colleges.
Whereas some of the colleges look for academic achievements in the field of law to screen students for the L.L.D course. Apart from these candidates also have an option of getting admissions in colleges on the basis of merit obtained in LLM course. The minimum aggregate required in LLM is 50 percent to get admission into L.L.D courses offered by various universities.
L.L.D (Doctor of Law) Admissions
There are different ways by which candidates can get enrolled in the doctorate courses in law offered by various institutions/colleges. Colleges use different methods for screening candidates to enrol in the diploma courses offered by them. With the detailed knowledge of the course, candidates must know the various methods by which they can get admissions into the colleges to doctorate courses in law. Mentioned below are the different methods by which candidates can get admission into this course.
Entrance Exams: This is one of the most popular methods used by colleges/institutions for screening candidates. Candidates can clear different exams and can get admission into different colleges providing doctorate courses in law. The scores obtained in these exams help students to get admission to top-ranked colleges.
Merit-based( LLM result): Not all colleges follow the entrance exam method to screen candidates for the doctorate courses offered by them in law. There are colleges/institutions that provide admissions to candidates in these courses on the basis of the marks obtained in the master’s degree in law. The criteria differ from college to college screening students on the basis of the merit obtained in the master’s degree in law. So candidates must go through the details before applying for admission into any of the colleges to avoid any mishap in future.
Top L.L.D Exams
There are many entrance exams for law courses after masters which are conducted at state or university level. These exams help colleges to screen the best suitable candidates to pursue their doctorate degree in law. Through the entrance exams for law after the master’s degree, candidates get an opportunity to take admission to a postgraduate course or doctorate in law course offered by various top-ranked colleges in India. Candidates get admissions into top colleges only after they clear the entrance exam for the doctorate degree. Mentioned below are entrance exams for law for your reference.
Top Exams for Law courses
All India Bar Exam (AIBE)
UPES Law Studies Admission Test (ULSAT)
TS PG Law Common Entrance Test (TS PGLCET)
TS Law Common Entrance Test (TS LAWCET)
Mumbai University Common Law Entrance Test (MUCLET)
Jammu University LLM Entrance Test
Indian Law Institute Common Admission Test
NEF Law Entrance Test
Galgotias University Law Entrance Test (GU-LSAT)
Maharishi Arvind University Law Entrance Test
Lloyd Law Entrance Test (LET)
CNLU LLM Entrance Exam
CEE Kerala LLB
Delhi University – LLB | LLM
Geeta Institute of Law G-LAT
ICFAI Law Entrance Test
Indian Law Institute ILICAT
AMU Law Entrance Exam
All India Law Entrance Test (AILET)
CEE Kerala LLM
AP PG Law Common Entrance Test (AP PGLCET)
AP Law Common Entrance Test (AP LAWCET)
Army Institute of Law Entrance Test (AIL LET)
Calcutta University BA LLB Entrance Exam
Common-Law Admission Test (CLAT)
Mentioned below are some of the tests for reference:
Common Law Admission Test(CLAT): This is one of the renowned law entrance exams. This exam is organised for the admission of candidates to the national law universities. The exam is usually held in the month of May every year. In order to sit for the exam, the candidates must have scored a minimum of 45% marks in the last qualifying exam. The Common Law Admission Test (CLAT) is a computer-based online test having a duration of two hours wherein the question paper consists of 150 multiple choice questions of one mark each.
All India Law Entrance Test: The All India Law Entrance Test is the law entrance exam which is held at a national level. The aim of this entrance exam is to offer admission to deserving candidates in the law courses. The duration of the exam is one hour and thirty minutes. Negative marking for each incorrect answer is applicable in the entrance examination.
Law School Admission Test: This is one of the law entrance exams which is organised at the university level. The candidates must have passed the qualifying exam from a recognised board/university to sit for this exam. Candidates are provided with a total of two hours and twenty minutes to solve the questions in the exam.
L.L.D (Doctor of Law) Specializations
Candidates have a lot of options to choose from the various areas of specialisations in the law courses offered by top-ranked colleges institutions. Some of the areas of specialisations are mentioned below :
Civil Law: Civil law is the part of a country's set of laws which is concerned with the private affairs of citizens, for example, marriage and property ownership, rather than with crime.
Criminal Law: Criminal law is the body of law that is related to crime. Criminal law deals with the behaviour that is or can be construed as an offence against the public, society, or the state.
Corporate Law: Corporate law deals with the formation and operations of corporations which is related to commercial and contract law. Whereas the role of a corporate lawyer is to ensure the legality of commercial transactions, advising corporations on their legal rights and duties.
Taxation Law: Tax laws are the legal rules and procedures governing how federal, state and local governments calculate the tax that people owe. The laws cover income, corporate, excise, luxury, estate and property taxes. Taxation refers to the practice of a government collecting money from its citizens to pay for public services.
Labor Law: Labor law is legislation specifying responsibilities and rights in employment, particularly the responsibilities of the employer and the rights of the employee.
International Law: International law is the set of rules, agreements and treaties that are binding between countries. When sovereign states enter into agreements that are binding and enforceable, it's called international law. International laws promote peace, justice, common interests and trade and international laws apply to governments.
L.L.D (Doctor of Law) Syllabus
L.L.D or doctor of law is a specialised law degree which is a three years programme. The syllabus of L.L.D differs from college to college. Mentioned here are some of the common topics that are a part of the law syllabus;
Law of Torts
Public International Law
Options for areas of Specialisation
Law of Contracts: General Principles
Law of Crimes: General principles
Rights and Duties
Nature and Source of Law
Importance of interdisciplinary approach
Judicial Process and Social Transformation
Amendment to the Constitution of India
Concepts of Possession and Ownership
Union State Legislative Relations
Fundamental Rights and Duties
Directive Principles of State Policy
Law Reform Research
Need for Legal Research
Legal Research as a profession in India
Types of Research
Significance of Legal Research in India
Relevance of Legal
Research Constitutional Law
The average salary of a doctor of law varies from company to company. The salary ranges between four to twenty lakhs per annum based on the experience in the field. L.L.D degree holders can be found working in corporate firms, law institutions, legal consultancy, law enforcement agencies, courts or judiciary and many more.
Scope of L.L.D
After successfully completing an L.L.D degree candidates have ample career options that they can choose from. Candidates can either get into academic professions or they can even opt to join the professions related to industry after successful completion of their L.L.D degree. Few popular job profiles that candidates can pursue after completing their L.L.D degree are mentioned below:
Lawyers: After successfully completing an L.L.D degree candidates can opt to become lawyers in the field of their specialisation. A lawyer is a professional who is qualified to offer advice about the law or represent someone in legal matters. A lawyer can also be called an attorney, a solicitor, a counsellor, a barrister and many more.
Judge: A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges. The powers, functions, method of appointment, discipline, and training of judges vary widely across different jurisdictions all across the globe. After successfully completing an L.L.D degree candidates can opt to become judges.
Legal Advisors: Candidates can even become a legal advisor after studying law. They counsel clients on legal rights and obligations. They mostly research laws applicable to a particular case and thereafter go through previous judgements passed in similar cases. They help their clients with options on how they can defend themselves in different situations.
Top colleges for law courses
Along with the details of the courses, candidates must be aware of the colleges offering these courses. The candidates must be aware of the best institutes that they can choose for law courses. Written down are a few of the colleges that provide law courses:
Careers Opportunities after L.L.D (Doctor of Law)
Law is one of the popular career choices in India and certainly among the most respected professions with a wide range of job opportunities. Not only the court but various corporate houses, law firms, administrative and judicial organisations offer a well-paid legal career. After successful completion of the law courses, candidates get opportunities to work both in public and private organisations. Candidates can either get into academic professions or they can even opt to join the professions related to industry after successful completion of their L.L.D degree.
Mentioned in a tabulated form are few of the careers that candidates can pursue after law courses:
Career opportunities after L.L.D
Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) - L.L.D (Doctor of Law) - Course, Admissions, Eligibility, Syllabus
Question: What is L.L.D?
L.L.D or doctor of law is a specialised law degree which is a three years programme. Candidates can complete this course in a maximum duration of six years and L.L.D programmes include course work. To pursue this course candidates must have completed their LLM/PhD in law from a recognised university.
Question: What is the eligibility criteria for L.L.D?
Candidates willing to pursue a law course need to be above the age of 17 to be eligible to appear in the examination. The minimum aggregate required in the last qualifying exam must be 50 per cent or above. The criteria differ from college to college so candidates are advised to go through the eligibility criteria of a college before applying for the admission.
Question: What is the salary of an L.L.D?
The average salary of a doctor of law varies from company to company. The salary ranges between four to twenty lakhs per annum based on the experience in the field.
Question: Where do candidates having an L.L.D degree work?
L.L.D degree holders can be found working in corporate firms, law institutions, legal consultancy, law enforcement agencies, courts or judiciary and many more.